National Register Eligibility Testing of Ten Sites on Camp Maxey, Lamar County, Texas
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The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) eligibility testing of ten archaeological sites located on Camp Maxey, a facility operated by the Texas Military Department (TMD) in Lamar County, Texas. While the project was not conducted under a Texas Antiquities Permit, it was conducted in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Antiquities Code of Texas. The testing was performed under Interagency Cooperation Agreement TMD20-ENV-15, with Dr. Raymond Mauldin serving as Principal Investigator and Leonard Kemp serving as Project Archaeologist. Prior to testing, CAR performed reconnaissance of 12 archaeological sites having NRHP undetermined eligibility. These sites are 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR175, 41LR177, 41LR184, 41LR203, 41LR213, 41LR226, and 41LR238. Shovel tests were excavated on seven of these sites to refine the placement of test units for the current project and any future projects. CAR excavated 93 shovel tests on 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR213, and 41LR226. Ten of the 12 sites were selected and tested under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended. These ten sites are 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR175, 41LR177, 41LR203, 41LR226, and 41LR238. Work was conducted in the summer of 2021 and late spring of 2022. CAR excavated 23 1-x-1 m test units and screened approximately 10.1 m3 of deposits. CAR recovered four bifaces, a uniface, two cores, two edge modified flakes, six native ceramic fragments (four of which refitted), 165 pieces of debitage, 2.45 kg of non-feature burned rock, burned faunal bone, and a quartzite crystal, as well as historic artifacts, including a 1903 U.S. penny, glass fragments, and a bullet. CAR identified two burned rock features, one at 41LR159 and another at 41LR161. CAR used three interrelated research domains to determine NRHP eligibility of the ten sites. These criteria are the chronological potential of a site, the integrity of a site, and the content of a site. Based on this research, CAR recommends that site 41LR159 is eligible for listing on the NRHP. Sites 41LR154, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR175, 41LR177, 41LR203, 41LR226, and 41LR238 are recommended as not eligible for NRHP listing. In addition, CAR redefined the boundaries of four sites, 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, and 41LR162 reflecting findings from the current investigation. Following analyses and quantification, artifacts associated with this project possessing little scientific value were discarded pursuant to Chapter 26.27(g)(2) of the Antiquities Code of Texas and in consultation with the TMD. All cultural materials and records obtained and/or generated during the project were prepared in accordance with federal regulation 36 CFR part 79 and THC requirements for State Held-in-Trust collections and placed in Accession file number 2603.