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dc.contributor.authorPowell, James R.
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Mobilia, Rafael
dc.contributor.authorMatzner, Richard A.
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-19T15:21:54Z
dc.date.available2021-04-19T15:21:54Z
dc.date.issued7/21/2020
dc.identifierdoi: 10.3390/e22070795
dc.identifier.citationEntropy 22 (7): 795 (2020)
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12588/505
dc.description.abstractThe cosmological singularity of infinite density, temperature, and spacetime curvature is the classical limit of Friedmann&rsquo;s general relativity solutions extrapolated to the origin of the standard model of cosmology. Jacob Bekenstein suggests that thermodynamics excludes the possibility of such a singularity in a 1989 paper. We propose a re-examination of his particle horizon approach in the early radiation-dominated universe and verify it as a feasible alternative to the classical inevitability of the singularity. We argue that this minimum-radius particle horizon determined from Bekenstein&rsquo;s entropy bound, necessarily quantum in nature as a quantum particle horizon (QPH), precludes the singularity, just as quantum mechanics provided the solution for singularities in atomic transitions as radius <inline-formula> <math display="inline"> <semantics> <mrow> <mi>r</mi> <mo>&rarr;</mo> <mn>0</mn> </mrow> </semantics> </math> </inline-formula>. An initial radius of zero can never be attained quantum mechanically. This avoids the spacetime singularity, supporting Bekenstein&rsquo;s assertion that Friedmann models cannot be extrapolated to the very beginning of the universe but only to a boundary that is &lsquo;something like a particle horizon&rsquo;. The universe may have begun in a bright flash and quantum flux of radiation and particles at a minimum, irreducible quantum particle horizon rather than at the classical mathematical limit and unrealizable state of an infinite singularity.
dc.titleBekenstein’s Entropy Bound-Particle Horizon Approach to Avoid the Cosmological Singularity
dc.date.updated2021-04-19T15:21:54Z


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