An On-Device Learning System for Estimating Liquid Consumption from Consumer-Grade Water Bottles and Its Evaluation
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A lightweight on-device liquid consumption estimation system involving an energy-aware machine learning algorithm is developed in this work. This system consists of two separate on-device neural network models that carry out liquid consumption estimation with the result of two tasks: the detection of sip from gestures with which the bottle is handled by its user and the detection of first sips after a bottle refill. This predictive volume estimation framework incorporates a self-correction mechanism that can minimize the error after each bottle fill-up cycle, which makes the system robust to errors from the sip classification module. In this paper, a detailed characterization of sip detection is performed to understand the accuracy-complexity tradeoffs by developing and implementing a variety of different ML models with varying complexities. The maximum energy consumed by the entire framework is around 119 <inline-formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><semantics><mrow><mi>mJ</mi></mrow></semantics></math></inline-formula> during a maximum computation time of 300 <inline-formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><semantics><mrow><mrow><mi mathvariant="sans-serif">μ</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">s</mi></mrow></mrow></semantics></math></inline-formula>. The energy consumption and computation times of the proposed framework is suitable for implementation in low-power embedded hardware that can be incorporated in consumer grade water bottles.
Electrical and Computer Engineering