Memory CD4+ T Cells in Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases
CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play central roles in immunity in health and disease. While much is known about the effector function of Th cells in combating pathogens and promoting autoimmune diseases, the roles and biology of memory CD4+ Th cells are complex and less well understood. In human autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a critical need to better understand the function and biology of memory T cells. In this review article we summarize current concepts in the field of CD4+ T cell memory, including natural history, developmental pathways, subsets, and functions. Furthermore, we discuss advancements in the field of the newly-described CD4+ tissue-resident memory T cells and of CD4+ memory T cells in autoimmune diseases, two major areas of important unresolved questions in need of answering to advance new vaccine design and development of novel treatments for CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.