Local Responses to Inka Imperialism: Spatial Analysis of Roads, Settlements, and Terraces in the Camata-Carijana Valley, Bolivia
To understand the agents involved in the production of the Camata-Carijana landscape, from the Inka period (circa 1450 to 1550 A.D.) into the modern era, the configuration of three landscape features (community settlements, road network, and agrarian terracing) are compared to a spectrum of possible colonial landscapes from a state-controlled landscape (Model 1) to a locally-produced landscape (Model 2). Archaeological analyses, including Geographical Information Systems applications, radiocarbon dating, soil chemistry, and palynology studies are used to highlight the colonial encounters between the Inkas and the inhabitants of the Valley. Throughout the Camata-Carijana Valley, the local Yunga-Chunchos were able to build their own spaces and express agency; thus, creating a unique landscape that combined elements from both models. For instance, in the Inka tambo, Maukallajta, and the fortification, Huallwata, we see local Yunga patterns. In terracing, we also see local and Inka styles across the Camata-Carijana Valley. While the people in the Camata-Carijana Valley supported the Inka by growing and providing coca, they also maintained their own avenues of production, trade, and exchange. This dissertation concludes that the local Yunga-Chunchos living in Camata-Carijana Valley were able to take advantage of their relationship with the Inka. In part, they utilized their connection with the Yunga-Kallawaya to navigate their position in the Empire. The Yunga-Chunchos in the Camata-Carijana Valley continued to negotiate their role during the Spanish Colonial Era. To this date, the people in the Camata-Carijana Valley navigate their identity as indigenous, traditional coca producers.