The Multidimensional Sense of Belonging Inventory-21: Further Validation in an Undergraduate Sample




Palomin, Amanda Amber

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



The Multidimensional Sense of Belonging Inventory-21(MSBI-21) was created to evaluate the psychological and antecedent factors of the belongingness construct, as well as an additional factor, extrinsic motivation (Osman et al., 2016). Extrinsic motivation has not previously been evaluated and was conceptualized to suggest that a lack of belongingness may encourage a person to overcome this negative experience in a positive way. The current study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the MSBI-21. An Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) technique was used to evaluate and compare a 3-factor, 2-factor, and unidimensional model of the MSBI-21. Results suggested that the 3-factor model best fit the sample data. The reliability estimates of the MSBI-21 scale scores suggested adequate estimates of reliability. Measurement invariance was evaluated comparing Hispanic and non-Hispanic study participants at the item level and suggested utility amongst all study participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of the MSBI-21 scale scores (Negative Emotion, Social Reassurance, and Extrinsic Motivation) were evaluated through relatedness of theoretically similar constructs such as anxiety, suicide risk and positive affect. The Negative Emotion scale score was positively correlated with measures of general psychopathology and suicide risk, while the Social Reassurance and Extrinsic Motivation scale scores were positively correlated with measures of positive affect. The findings of this study suggest that the MSBI-21 showed adequate psychometric properties and relevancy in measuring the belongingness construct.


This item is available only to currently enrolled UTSA students, faculty or staff. To download, navigate to Log In in the top right-hand corner of this screen, then select Log in with my UTSA ID.


Multidimensional Sense of Belonging Inventory-21, MSBI-21, Belongingness