An Investigation of First Language (L1) Influence on Second Language (L2) Phraseological Use: A Corpus-Based Study




Alnufaie, Rana

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



This study investigates the use of phraseological units in academic argumentative essays written by English language learners from Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish L1 backgrounds. By employing corpus-based methods and using the analytical frameworks of structural taxonomy by Biber et al. (1999) and the functional taxonomy by Hyland (2008), the study identifies distinct preferences in functional and structural categories and sub-categories among the produced phraseological units from the four different L1 groups.

The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the use and preference of these phraseological units influenced by the learners' L1 backgrounds. These findings highlight the strong impact of the L1 on L2 academic writing, suggesting that the L1 repertoire significantly influences the production of phraseological units in L2 English academic writing, especially at the lower levels of proficiency. This study not only informs language teaching practices by highlighting the importance of considering L1 influence but also sets the ground for future research. To deepen our understanding of the interplay between the L1 and the L2, future research can investigate these dynamics in a more diverse range of L1 backgrounds and other written genres.


The full text of this item is not available at this time because the author has placed this item under an embargo until May 16, 2026.




Bicultural-Bilingual Studies