Evaluating the Effects of Tootling on Disruptive and Academically Engaged Behaviors of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders




Salinas, Ernesto Alberto

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of Tootling on disruptive classroom behaviors and academically engaged behaviors within a self-contained setting of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This study aims to answer two research questions: (1) Is there a functional relationship between Tootling and reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviors within a special education classroom? (2) Is there a functional relationship between Tootling and increasing the frequency of academically engaged behaviors throughout academic times? An elementary, middle, and high school special education classroom was selected for participation. Data was collected on the target students of each classroom who met the inclusion criteria. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was implemented. The initial phase consisted of a baseline followed by the intervention phase of the Tootling behavior intervention. Tootling was withdrawn following the intervention phase for a return to baseline and reinstated to complete the final phase. A visual and statistical analysis was provided. Results showed differences in the level, trend, and variability of disruptive and academically engaged behaviors from non-intervention phases to intervention phases across classrooms and target students. Strong Tau-U and statistically significant SMD effect sizes support the visual analysis findings. The results suggest that tootling contributed to decreased disruptive behaviors and increased academically engaged behaviors. Discussions, limitations, implications, and future research recommendations are provided for teachers and researchers working with students with EBD using the tootling strategy.


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Academically Engaged Behaviors, Behavior Intervention, Disruptive Behaviors, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Special Education, Tootling



Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching