Effect of Dietary Geranylgeraniol and Green Tea Polyphenols on Glucose Homeostasis, Bone Turnover Biomarkers, and Bone Microstructure in Obese Mice
Previously, we demonstrated that the administration of either geranylgeraniol (GGOH) or green tea polyphenols (GTP) improved bone health. This study examined the combined effects of GGOH and GTP on glucose homeostasis in addition to bone remodeling in obese mice. We hypothesized that GGOH and GTP would have an additive or synergistic effect on improving glucose homeostasis and bone remodeling possibly in part via suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to a high-fat diet (control), HFD + 400 mg GGOH/kg diet (GG), HFD + 0.5% GTP water (TP), or HFD + GGOH + GTP (GGTP) diet for 14 weeks. Results demonstrated that GTP supplementation improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Neither GGOH nor GTP affected pancreas insulin or bone formation procollagen type I intact N-terminal, bone volume at the lumbar vertebrae, or bone parameters at the trabecular bone and cortical bone of the femur. There was an interactive effect for serum bone resorption collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide concentrations, resulting in no-GGOH and no-GTP groups having the highest values. GGOH increased trabecular number and decreased trabecular separation at the lumbar vertebrae. GTP increased trabecular thickness at lumbar vertebrae. The GG group produced the greatest connectivity density and the lowest structure model index. Only GTP, not GGOH, decreased adipokines concentrations (resistin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interleukin-6). In an obese male mouse model, individual GGOH and GTP supplementation improved glucose homeostasis, serum CTX, and trabecular microstructure of LV-4. However, the combined GGOH and GTP supplementation compromises such osteoprotective effects on serum CTX and trabecular bone of obese mice.