Characterization of Local and Systemic Impact of Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Feeding and Whitefly-Transmitted Tomato Mottle Virus Infection on Tomato Leaves by Comprehensive Proteomics
Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV) is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) begomovirus transmitted to solanaceous crops by the whitefly species complex (Bemisia tabaci), causing stunted growth, leaf mottling, and reduced yield. Using a genetic repertoire of seven genes, ToMoV pathogenesis includes the manipulation of multiple plant biological processes to circumvent antiviral defenses. To further understand the effects of whitefly feeding and whitefly-transmitted ToMoV infection on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum 'Florida Lanai'), we generated comprehensive protein profiles of leaves subjected to feeding by either viruliferous whiteflies harboring ToMoV, or non-viruliferous whiteflies, or a no-feeding control. The effects of whitefly feeding and ToMoV infection were measured both locally and systemically by sampling either a mature leaf directly from the site of clip-cage confined whitefly feeding, or from a newly formed leaf 10 days post feeding (dpf). At 3 dpf, tomato's response to ToMoV included proteins associated with translation initiation and elongation as well as plasmodesmata dynamics. In contrast, systemic impacts of ToMoV on younger leaves 10 dpf were more pronounced and included a virus-specific change in plant proteins associated with mRNA maturation and export, RNA-dependent DNA methylation, and other antiviral plant processes. Our analysis supports previous findings and provides novel insight into tomato's local and systemic response to whitefly feeding and ToMoV infection.