Victimization, Offending, and Expectations for Future Success Among High-Risk Youth
Research on how high-risk youth perceive their futures is underdeveloped. Using the Pathways to Desistance Study data, this research examines how direct and indirect victimization, ongoing offending, and the overlap of these experiences influence expectations for future success. Results from a series of OLS regression models offer support for the existence of a relationship between these adverse experiences and expectations for the future. This is especially true for victim-offenders, who report lower expectations for future success than those who are only victims or offenders. In addition, this study examines how this consequence and the prevalence of the victim-offender overlap is influenced by the inclusion of indirect victimization. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.