Mindfulness, the Working Alliance, and Client Outcomes




Avera, Joseph E.

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Common Factors research has identified the therapeutic alliance as one of the most influential contributors to positive client outcomes. To be present with and fully focused on clients are two robust contributors to a strong therapeutic alliance. Counselors-in-training however are generally trained to execute specific skills. Skills, are viewed by new counselors-in-training as things to do to clients in session vis-à-vis ways to be in session. Helping counselors-in-training develop their ability to be present with clients without feeling the reactive need to interject counseling skills may better therapeutic alliances and providing more effective counseling treatment outcomes. Students in other helping professions report mindfulness meditation practices contribute to feeling more comfortable with clients. Mindfulness meditation develops greater awareness of clients’ needs. This researcher examined counselor mindfulness practices. The study utilized clients’ treatment outcomes and working alliance perceptions. Using a quasi-experimental study, this researcher attempted to capture and explain client reported differences between mindfulness vs. non-mindfulness counselor groups, and the potential significance resulting from these differences. Participants were master’s level counselors-in-training enrolled in a practicum course. The program offering the practicum course was a Counsel for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Programs (CACREP) accredited university in the southwest United States. The researcher measured the relationship between the Counselor-In-Training mindfulness practices, and changes in client reported counseling outcomes over the treatment course. Data was analyzed using a Repeated Measures Multivariate Linear mixed model, a specific form of linear mixed modeling analysis. Findings, implications, and future research recommendations are presented and discussed.


This item is available only to currently enrolled UTSA students, faculty or staff. To download, navigate to Log In in the top right-hand corner of this screen, then select Log in with my UTSA ID.


Client Outcomes, Counseling, Counselor Education, Mindfulness, Therapeutic Alliance, Working Alliance