Novel NADPH Oxidase-2 Inhibitors as Potential Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Agents




Juric, Matea
Rawat, Varun
Amaradhi, Radhika
Zielonka, Jacek
Ganesh, Thota

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A family of seven NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox1-5, Duox1-2) has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory lung diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Here, we report the results of our studies aimed at developing novel brain-permeable Nox2 inhibitors with potential application as neuroprotective agents. Using cell-based assays, we identified a novel Nox2 inhibitor, TG15-132, that prevents PMA-stimulated oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide) formation upon acute treatment in differentiated HL60 cells. Long-term treatment with TG15-132 attenuates the induction of genes encoding Nox2 subunits, several inflammatory cytokines, and iNOS in differentiated THP-1 cells. Moreover, TG15-132 shows a relatively long plasma half-life (5.6 h) and excellent brain permeability, with a brain-to-plasma ratio (>5-fold) in rodent models. Additionally, TG15-132 does not cause any toxic effects on vital organs or blood biomarkers of toxicity in mice upon chronic dosing for seven days. We propose that TG15-132 may be used as a Nox2 inhibitor and a potential neuroprotective agent, with possible further structural modifications to increase its potency.



NADPH oxidase, inflammation, neurodegeneration, inhibitors, neuroprotection, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide


Antioxidants 12 (9): 1660 (2023)


Center for Innovative Drug Discovery