Interface and Control of Multiphasic Aqueous Colloidal Formations of CO2 and Ice Mixtures via Integrated Sensors




Yanes, Hirton David

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Mixtures encompass a variety of subcategories according to particulate ratio, one specific example are frozen carbonated beverages (FCB). In these three phase colloidal mixtures the three fundamental states of matter exist in definite harmony; when carbonation of the beverage is considered. The three phases are the ice crystals formed upon freezing water, sweetener additive such as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and pressurized CO2 gas injected into the water-syrup solution, respectively. Varying the ratio between the ingredients mentioned affects the drink profile of the beverage on a microscopic as well as macroscopic scale. This concept is pivotal in both the dispenser's drink classification portfolio and repeatability of the beverage. Thus, a dispenser was devised, incorporating a matrix of sensors and meters alike to monitor a local refrigeration cycle plus several insightful test points along the machine. In addition, ultrasonic spectroscopy was conducted on the dispenser's product to further investigate the concept of varying the FCB's ingredients. This customized beverage dispenser offered tunability and scalability throughout the experimentation to understand how ratio varying affected the outcome of resulting colloidal mixtures.


This item is available only to currently enrolled UTSA students, faculty or staff. To download, navigate to Log In in the top right-hand corner of this screen, then select Log in with my UTSA ID.


Arduino, Colloid, FCB, Heat Exchanger, Microcontroller, Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger



Electrical and Computer Engineering