Is It Truly 'Anything That Shoots?' Blasting Open the Black Box of Firearm Socialization




Pyatt, Calvin Lee

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Firearms in the United States have become salient in academia over the past few decades. An area with limitations, however, is early firearm socialization and its impact on adult firearm outcomes. It is assumed firearm culture is a miasma individuals embody via merely being in its presence; however, this process of internalization is catalyzed by early firearm socialization. With the Guns in American Life survey, a national survey of 3,103 U.S. adults, this study utilized different forms of firearm socialization, including passive socialization, indirect socialization, and direct socialization to evaluate adult firearm ownership and firearm policy attitudes. All forms of early firearm socialization a) increased the likelihood that a participant owned a firearm and b) were positively associated with the number of firearms owned. When adjusting for all variables, the effects for passive and indirect socialization weakened while direct socialization remained stable. Direct firearm socialization was associated with less support for restrictive firearm policies and more support for firearm carry policies. Passive socialization was associated support for both policies while indirect socialization was only associated with more support for firearm carry policies. The effects of direct socialization weakened after adjusting for the number of firearms owned. There is evidence the association between direct socialization and restrictive firearm policy attitudes was mediated by the number of firearms owned. Additional studies are needed to reaffirm these findings, see the effects over a longer period of time, and place more emphasis on the context of firearm socialization experiences.


The full text of this item is not available at this time because the author has placed this item under an embargo until May 16, 2026.


Firearm Ownership, Firearm Policy Attitudes, Firearm Socialization, Firearms