The Maternal and Postweaning Diet on Cardiometabolic Function of Dams and Offspring
Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, and the emerging evidence suggests that the intrauterine environment is of importance on the development of obesity in offspring. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined exposure to maternal obesogenic diet and postweaning diet on cardiometabolic health of both mothers and offspring. Female CD-1 mice were fed either a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) or a refined low-fat, low-sucrose (LFLS) diet for 8 weeks before pregnancy and throughout the study period. Offspring were studied at 2-3 months and 5-6 months of age. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance testing. Cardiac function was measured by M-mode-echocardiography. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content was measured using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found that dams developed obesity with the HFHS diet significantly decreasing systolic function during late gestation and weaning (P<0.05), but not at 6 weeks postpartum (PP). The HFHS diet alone, however, did not alter cardiac function in dams. Postweaning HFHS diet resulted in significant weight gain (P<0.05) and insulin resistance (P<0.05) in both male and female offspring, but did not induce cardiac dysfunction. We found no differences in the MHC isoform content in the studied animals. Our results suggest that both gestational and postweaning diet impaired the development of obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis. Follow-up into later age of offspring in cardiac function may be recommended to further assess the risk of dam obesity and postweaning diet in offspring.