Design and realization of low power CMOS dividers




Yen, Kai Hsien

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All modern processors, including general purpose microprocessors, digital signal processors and GPUs contain an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). The computing efficiency of modern processors mainly depends of the efficiency of the ALU. Modern ALUs can perform several complex functions including multiplication and division. Compared to addition, subtraction or multiplication, division is a less frequently used operation. Special purpose processors, such as DSPs use division operation to increase the speed performance. In the past, the primary focus in the design of the dividers was on circuit speed. However, low power requirement has become more and more important in recent years.

The primary objective of this research is the design and realization of low power CMOS dividers using efficient adder modules. In this research 3 divider algorithms viz. Restoring Divider, Non-Restoring Divider and the SRT (Sweeney, Robertson, and Tocher) divider were analyzed. Adders are one of the key building blocks in the realization of a divider algorithm. In this research several adder modules were analyzed to identify the optimal adder modules that can be used for the realization of the divider algorithms. The performance metrics considered for the analysis of the adders are: power, delay and area. This research also proposes design modifications for one of the existing adder circuits to achieve better forms.

In this research the CMOS dividers were realized using TSMC 65 and 40 nm technologies. For performance comparison, the dividers were realized using various adder modules. Using simulation studies, delay, area and power performance of the various adder modules and the dividers realized using these adder modules were obtained. It was observed that the divider algorithms realized using Low Power Carry Select Adder (LPCSA) and the Speculative Approximation Carry Look-ahead Adder (SACLA) have better circuit characteristics compared to dividers realized using other adder modules.


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Electrical and Computer Engineering