Typologies of anger in a clinical sample with mild cognitive impairment
Individuals diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) report a gradual decline in memory, intelligence, and/or executive functioning which leads to mild-to-moderate deficits in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: complex activities required for independent living, such as paying bills, remembering appointments, and maintaining a home (Petersen et al., 2001; Cahn-Weiner et al., 2007; West, McCue, & Golden, 2012). Along with these symptoms, patients with MCI often report increased levels of negative affect; specifically, depression, anxiety, and anger (Banningh, Vernooij-Dassen, Rikkert, & Teunisse, 2008). This paper sought to acquire quantitative, normative data on anger experience and expression in this target population. Additionally, this study regressed anger onto neuropsychological and sociodemographic variables to examine their role as potential predictors of anger experience and expression. Furthermore, to demonstrate anger's position in the triad of negative affect alongside depression and anxiety, regression analysis was employed. Normative anger data indicated 50% of MCI patients experienced sub-clinical or clinical levels of anger, but the majority expressed this anger in socially acceptable manners. Moreover, a negative linear trend was observed between age and anger experience, indicating people experience less anger as they age. Lastly, anger was positively associated with both depression and anxiety, highlighting its role as a core member in negative affect.