The anger parameters scale and the anger expressions scale: a psychometric study
This study was designed to examine the concurrent validity, internal consistency, and retest reliability of two newly developed anger assessment instruments, the Anger Parameters Scale (APS) and the Anger Expressions Scale (AES). With regard to concurrent validity, the APS was evaluated against a widely used standard, the second edition of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2). Internal consistency for the APS and the AES was measured with Cronbach's alpha. With regard to retest reliability, temporal stability of the APS and AES was examined over a one week interval. Finally, a secondary objective was to analyze relationships between anger scores and sociodemographic variables (Age, Gender, Ethnicity, Race, and Education Level). Results revealed that subscales of the APS and AES were concurrently valid with comparable subscales of the STAXI, and both the APS and AES had significant temporal stability. In keeping with the bulk of previous research, no significant differences in anger emerged as a function of the sociodemographic variables. In conclusion, the new generation of instruments (APS and AES) builds upon the foundations laid down in the STAXI-2 by achieving convergent validity on similar scales and also by expanding the scope of anger parameters and expression styles assessed. The new instruments are also temporally reliable as measures of anger. Further research could examine longer periods of stability as well as sensitivity to change, in addition to validating the APS and AES against actual behavior in naturalistic settings.