Modes of interaction by the Tiwanaku polity and the Inka empire in the Charazani region
This thesis discusses the modes of interaction in Charazani, Bolivia to understand the forms of political control by the Tiwanaku and Inka polities in the region. To identify the modes of interaction (vertical archipelago, prestige goods economy, feasting, and emulation through materialization of ideology), I examine the variation of ceramic types across 35 sites in different ecological zones in Charazani. In addition, I explore ceramic variation across four time periods (Formative, Middle Horizon, Late Intermediate Period, and Inka) to denote changes related to the rise and fall of the Tiwanaku and Inka polities.
In order to study ceramic variation across time and space, it was necessary to first develop a ceramic classification and a ceramic chronology by comparing known classifications and chronologies form different Andean regions. Moreover, the portion of ceramics was utilized to create an inference of site function and intensity of ceramic use.
The analysis shows that the Tiwanaku and Inka polities employed varying strategies. It was concluded that the Tiwanaku polity formed colonies in strategic locations. Additionally, Tiwanaku established vertical trade and alliances through a prestige goods economy. At the same time, Charazani locals emulated the Tiwanaku style and ideology. In comparison, the Inka Empire created alliances through a prestige goods economy and invested, not in ceramics, but in the construction of various architectural features, such as agrarian terraces, ph'ullus, and corrals. I argue that the creation of architectural features and the privileged status granted to the local Charazanis, the Kallawayas, the Inka did not need to colonize the region to gain political control