The relationship between pedagogical beliefs and teacher efficacy: A case study of Chinese foreign language teachers in Texas
This study investigated an emerging language learning culture by examining the relationship between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and perceived efficacy in two cities in southern Texas. Drawing on Bandura's (1994) theory of self-efficacy and Ashton and Webb's (1986) notions about teacher efficacy, a multi-sited case study was conducted to explore how CFL teachers practiced in classrooms and what factors were associated with their personal and professional efficacy as well as shaped their development. With six CFL teachers involved, the study took one and a half years to complete, collecting copious qualitative data from observations, interviews, constant dialogues, teachers' artifacts, and relevant document. Results of the study indicated: 1) working in constant isolation, prior learning and social experience and online resources served as the major foundations for both novice and experienced teachers' pedagogical beliefs; 2) macro and micro contextual factors were significantly associated with teachers' beliefs, and affected their emotional states and expectations about their professional achievements and student accomplishments; 3) due to personal experience and contextual factors, teachers showed different perceived personal and teaching efficacy, which led to various realizations about curriculum designs. As a consequence, the study implies the importance of certification programs for CFL teachers in this emerging professional field and an essential need for further research to reveal teachers' actual professional development need.