The Temporal Relations Between General Enculturation, Traditional Gender Roles, and Alcohol Use Among Latina/o College Students
The purpose of this project was to examine the incremental prediction of general enculturation and traditional gender roles (TGR) on alcohol use and misuse among a sample of Latina/o college men and women within a longitudinal framework. As part of this effort, the current study used a multi-dimensional approach to examine TGR (i.e., machismo for men and marianismo for women) and a bi-domain approach (i.e., both cognitive and behavioral domains) for general enculturation and TGR. For the men in this sample, it was hypothesized that a hypermasculine dimension of machismo (i.e., traditional machismo) would be positively related to both general and problematic drinking while a dimension of machismo characterized by chivalry and respect (i.e., caballerismo) would be inversely related to the same alcohol outcomes. For women, it was hypothesized that dimensions of marianismo aligned with purity and virtue would be inversely related to the alcohol outcomes. Given the novelty of the study regarding the assessment of marianismo with alcohol use among Latina women, further specific hypotheses were not advanced.
Data supported many of the hypothesized relations (e.g., the opposing relations between each dimension of machismo and alcohol use for men; the inverse relation between a virtuous and chaste dimension of marianismo and alcohol use for women), but some findings emerged that were not hypothesized (e.g., positive relations between familial and spiritual strength dimensions of marianismo and alcohol use for women). As such, these findings support the notion that knowledge of TGR may be incorporated into culturally tailored programming designed to reduce or prevent problematic alcohol use. Furthermore, these findings support moving this research forward using a more holistic socio-ecological framework to better understand the relation between TGR and alcohol use within a network of macro-level and person-level factors.