Efficacy of Analogy Based Instruction on Student Achievement in College Biology: Focusing on Gender and Race
This study examined the effect of using analogy based instruction on students’ achievement in college biology using pre-test/post-test design. Analysis included comparison of pre-test/post-test scores as they relate to gender and race. The analysis of race was directed on Latino, African American and Caucasian students. Student pre-test and post-test scores from the years 2012 to 2016 from a one day prep program titled “JumpStart –Biology I” were analyzed to study the effect of using analogy based instruction on students’ achievement in college biology.
The focus was on the function of an extended analogies ability to affect the achievement of JumpStart participants (Biology I students), specifically through the standpoint of lecture with no analogy, lecture with extended analogy, on improving students’ achievement in biology. Data collection for student achievement was conducted using a predesigned test. The test assessed students’ understanding of: cell structures and functions, transcription and translation, meiosis and mitosis, cellular respiration and genetics. Data analysis of a comparison of means and the mean percent change in pre-test and post-test scores was conducted using a t-test; α = .05.
The data analyzed in this study yielded many findings and was crucial in answering the research questions. The analogy based instruction modules had a greater influence on student achievement than the traditional based instruction modules. When related to gender the analogy based instruction had a significant influence on student scores, both males and females’ achievement improved. When related to race the analogy based instruction had a noteworthy influence on student scores.