Statistical Validation of Risk Alleles in Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) Test: Early Identification of Risk for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) in 74,566 Case–Control Subjects




Blum, Kenneth
Han, David
Gupta, Ashim
Baron, David
Braverman, Eric R.
Dennen, Catherine A.
Kazmi, Shan
Llanos-Gomez, Luis
Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.
Elman, Igor

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Since 1990, when our laboratory published the association of the DRD2 Taq A1 allele and severe alcoholism in JAMA, there has been an explosion of genetic candidate association studies, including GWAS. To develop an accurate test to help identify those at risk for at least Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), Blum’s group developed the Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) test, consisting of ten genes and eleven associated risk alleles. In order to statistically validate the selection of these risk alleles measured by GARS, we applied strict analysis to studies that investigated the association of each polymorphism with AUD or AUD-related conditions published from 1990 until 2021. This analysis calculated the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium of each polymorphism in cases and controls. If available, the Pearson’s χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test was applied to comparisons of the gender, genotype, and allele distribution. The statistical analyses found the OR, 95% CI for OR, and a post-risk for 8% estimation of the population’s alcoholism prevalence revealed a significant detection. The OR results showed significance for DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, DAT1, COMT, OPRM1, and 5HTT at 5%. While most of the research related to GARS is derived from our laboratory, we are encouraging more independent research to confirm our findings.



statistical validation of GARS, neurotransmitters, dopamine, opioids, odds ratios, Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS), Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)


Journal of Personalized Medicine 12 (9): 1385 (2022)


Management Science and Statistics