Secure and privacy-preserving 3D vehicle positioning schemes for vehicular ad hoc network
Industrial wireless networks (IWNs) have applications in areas such as critical infrastructure sectors and manufacturing industries such as car manufacturing. In car manufacturing, IWNs can facilitate manufacturers to improve the design of the vehicles by collecting vehicular status and other related data (such an IWN is also known as vehicular ad hoc networks—VANETs). Vehicle positioning is a key functionality in VANETs. Most existing vehicle positioning systems are capable of providing accurate 2D positioning, but the demand for accurate 3D positioning has increased sharply in recent times (e.g., due to the building of more elevated roads). There are, however, security and privacy concerns relating to 3D positioning systems in VANET. In this paper, we propose two secure and privacy-preserving 3D positioning schemes based on vehicle-to-roadside (V2R) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, respectively. Our schemes are based on the round trip time ranging technique which is used to achieve 3D position. The security and the privacy of vehicles in our schemes are guaranteed through a newly designed one-pass authenticated key agreement protocol. Using experiments, we show that a vehicle can determine whether it is on or under an elevated road in a short period of time.