Gender Role Discrepancy Stress and COVID-19 Prevention Behaviors Among Men in the United States




Sileo, Katelyn M.
Luttinen, Rebecca
Muñoz, Suyapa
Hill, Terrence D.

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SAGE Publications


Purpose: To examine the associations between gender role discrepancy (non-conformity to socially prescribed masculine gender role norms) and discrepancy stress (distress arising from this discrepancy) on COVID-19 prevention behaviors among men, and the potential moderating effects of race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and income on these relationships. Design: A national online survey was conducted between May and June 2021. Setting: The United States. Subjects: 749 adult men residing in the United States. Measures: A scale measured gender role discrepancy and discrepancy stress. COVID-19 prevention outcomes were constructed and included self-reported vaccination status/intentions, social distancing, mask-wearing, and hand-sanitizing. Analysis: Multivariate generalized linear models were performed in SPSS. Results: Gender role discrepancy associated with greater odds of vaccination (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.02-1.78, P = .04), while discrepancy stress associated with lower odds of vaccination (AOR = .48, 95% CI = .35-.68, P < 0. 001) and mask-wearing (AOR = .54, 95% CI = .37-.79, P = .001) for men overall. Discrepancy stress’s negative effect on specific COVID-19 prevention behaviors was only apparent or was amplified for men in lower income brackets (vaccination, social distancing, mask-wearing), racial/ethnic minority men (vaccination), and sexual minority men (social distancing). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that gender role discrepancy stress negatively affects men’s engagement in COVID-19 prevention, particularly for men in marginalized populations.



COVID-19, health behavior, men, masculinity


Sileo, K. M., Luttinen, R., Muñoz, S., & Hill, T. D. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress and COVID-19 Prevention Behaviors Among Men in the United States. American Journal of Health Promotion, 0(0), 08901171231152140. doi:10.1177/08901171231152140


Public Health