In vitro effects of nutraceutical treatment on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes of females of different age and weight groups
The in vitro effects of four nutraceuticals, catechin hydrate, gallic acid, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, on the ability of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes of two female obese groups to form articular cartilage (AC) tissues and to reduce inflammation were investigated. Group 1 represented thirteen females in the 50–69 years old range, an average weight of 100 kg and an average body mass index (BMI) of 34⋅06 kg/m2. Group 2 was constituted of three females in the 70–80 years old range, an average weight of 75 kg and an average BMI of 31⋅43 kg/m2. The efficacy of nutraceuticals was assessed in monolayer cultures using histological, colorimetric and mRNA gene expression analyses. AC engineered tissues of group 1 produced less total collagen and COL2A1 (38-fold), and higher COL10A1 (2⋅7-fold), MMP13 (50-fold) and NOS2 (15-fold) mRNA levels than those of group 2. In comparison, engineered tissues of group 1 had a significant decrease in NO levels from day 1 to day 21 (2⋅6-fold), as well as higher mRNA levels of FOXO1 (2-fold) and TNFAIP6 (16-fold) compared to group 2. Catechin hydrate decreased NO levels significantly in group 1 (1⋅5-fold) while increasing NO levels significantly in group 2 (3⋅8-fold). No differences from the negative control were observed in the presence of other nutraceuticals for either group. In conclusion, engineered tissues of the younger but heavier patients responded better to nutraceuticals than those from the older but leaner study participants. Finally, cells of group 2 formed better AC tissues with less inflammation and better extracellular matrix than cells of group 1.