Nuclear-Driven Integrated Energy Systems: A State-of-the-Art Review
Because of the growing concerns regarding climate change and energy sustainability, a transition toward a modern energy sector that reduces environmental effects while promoting social and economic growth has gained traction in recent years. Sustainable energy solutions, which include renewable and low-carbon sources such as nuclear energy and natural gas, could minimize emissions of greenhouse gases, enhance air and water quality, and encourage energy independence. Yet, the shift to a sustainable energy industry is fraught with difficulties, including governmental and regulatory obstacles, technological and economic limits, and societal acceptability hurdles. Addressing these issues would necessitate the development of long-term, durable, and cost-effective energy systems containing nuclear energy and associated with the generation of both electricity and other by-products required by industry. Integrated energy systems (IES) are a novel way to maximize the use of various energy resources and technologies in order to deliver dependable, efficient, and sustainable energy services. IES entail the integration of various energy systems, such as electricity, heating, cooling, and transportation, in respect to energy sustainability and a system's resilience and flexibility. Their development and implementation require the cooperation of several parties, including energy providers and policymakers. This study provides a state-of-the-art literature review of the most creative nuclear-driven hybrid energy system applications and methodologies, from which the research challenges and prospects for effective IES implementation emerge.