Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Methods to Estimate the Compressive Strength of Geopolymers




Zou, Yong
Zheng, Chao
Alzahrani, Abdullah Mossa
Ahmad, Waqas
Ahmad, Ayaz
Mohamed, Abdeliazim Mustafa
Khallaf, Rana
Elattar, Samia

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The depletion of natural resources and greenhouse gas emissions related to the manufacture and use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pose serious concerns to the environment and human life. The present research focuses on using alternative binders to replace OPC. Geopolymer might be the best option because it requires waste materials enriched in aluminosilicate for its production. The research on geopolymer concrete (GPC) is growing rapidly. However, substantial effort and expenses are required to cast specimens, cures, and tests. Applying novel techniques for the said purpose is the key requirement for rapid and cost-effective research. In this research, supervised machine learning (SML) techniques, including two individual (decision tree (DT) and gene expression programming (GEP)) and two ensembled (bagging regressor (BR) and random forest (RF)) algorithms were employed to estimate the compressive strength (CS) of GPC. The validity and comparison of all the models were made using the coefficient of determination (R2), k-fold, and statistical assessments. It was noticed that the ensembled SML techniques performed better than the individual SML techniques in forecasting the CS of GPC. However, individual SML model results were also in the reasonable range. The R2 value for BR, RF, GEP, and DT models was 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, and 0.88, respectively. The models’ lower error values such as mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square errors (RMSE) also verified the higher precision of ensemble SML methods. The RF (MAE = 2.585 MPa, RMSE = 3.702 MPa) and BR (MAE = 2.044 MPa, RMSE = 3.180) results are better than the DT (MAE = 4.136 MPa, RMSE = 6.256 MPa) and GEP (MAE = 3.102 MPa, RMSE = 4.049 MPa). The application of SML techniques will benefit the construction sector with fast and cost-effective methods for estimating the properties of materials.



geopolymers, concrete, modeling, predictions, compressive strength


Gels 8 (5): 271 (2022)


Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Construction Management