Double Burden for Women in Mid and Later Life: Evidence from Time Use Profiles in Cebu, the Philippines




Chen, Feinian
Bao, Luoman
Lin, Zhiyong
Zimmer, Zachary
Gultiano, Socorro
Borja, Judith B.

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Cambridge University Press


Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (1994, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2012), we utilise latent class analysis to develop time-use class membership to characterise the degree to which women in Cebu are subject to the double burden of work and family responsibilities in mid- and later life. Results suggest that close to a third of the sample are engaged in high-intensity work for pay (either outside or home-based), while combining it with a substantial amount of household chores and with a low level of personal time in a span of 18 years. Our latent transition analysis also shows that, with the addition of grandchildren into the household, some women experience a shift in time-use class membership by becoming high-intensity care-givers or by completely transitioning out of the work arena, while others remain double-burdened with active involvement in both work and family responsibilities.


This is the accepted manuscript. Final published version available via Cambridge UP at


time use, double burden, care-giving


Chen, F., Bao, L., Lin, Z., Zimmer, Z., Gultiano, S., & Borja, J. (2018). Double burden for women in mid- and later life: Evidence from time-use profiles in Cebu, the Philippines. Ageing and Society, 38(11), 2325-2355. doi:10.1017/S0144686X17000599