Anaplasma Species in Africa—A Century of Discovery: A Review on Molecular Epidemiology, Genetic Diversity, and Control
Anaplasma species, belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales, are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for various tick-borne diseases of veterinary and human significance worldwide. With advancements in molecular techniques, seven formal species of Anaplasma and numerous unclassified species have been described. In Africa, several Anaplasma species and strains have been identified in different animals and tick species. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of classified and unclassified Anaplasma species detected in animals and ticks across Africa. The review also covers control measures that have been taken to prevent anaplasmosis transmission on the continent. This information is critical when developing anaplasmosis management and control programs in Africa.