Current Progress in the Science of Novel Adjuvant Nano-Vaccine-Induced Protective Immune Responses




Saleemi, Mansab Ali
Zhang, Yan
Zhang, Guoquan

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Vaccinations are vital as they protect us from various illness-causing agents. Despite all the advancements in vaccine-related research, developing improved and safer vaccines against devastating infectious diseases including Ebola, tuberculosis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a significant challenge. In addition, some of the current human vaccines can cause adverse reactions in some individuals, which limits their use for massive vaccination program. Therefore, it is necessary to design optimal vaccine candidates that can elicit appropriate immune responses but do not induce side effects. Subunit vaccines are relatively safe for the vaccination of humans, but they are unable to trigger an optimal protective immune response without an adjuvant. Although different types of adjuvants have been used for the formulation of vaccines to fight pathogens that have high antigenic diversity, due to the toxicity and safety issues associated with human-specific adjuvants, there are only a few adjuvants that have been approved for the formulation of human vaccines. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have gain specific attention and are commonly used as adjuvants for vaccine development as well as for drug delivery due to their excellent immune modulation properties. This review will focus on the current state of adjuvants in vaccine development, the mechanisms of human-compatible adjuvants and future research directions. We hope this review will provide valuable information to discovery novel adjuvants and drug delivery systems for developing novel vaccines and treatments.



vaccination, adjuvants, delivery systems, immune response, future perspectives


Pathogens 13 (6): 441 (2024)


Molecular Microbiology and Immunology