A Review of Biomaterials and Associated Performance Metrics Analysis in Pre-Clinical Finite Element Model and in Implementation Stages for Total Hip Implant System
Total hip replacement (THR) is a common orthopedic surgery technique that helps thousands of individuals to live normal lives each year. A hip replacement replaces the shattered cartilage and bone with an implant. Most hip implants fail after 10–15 years. The material selection for the total hip implant systems is a major research field since it affects the mechanical and clinical performance of it. Stress shielding due to excessive contact stress, implant dislocation due to a large deformation, aseptic implant loosening due to the particle propagation of wear debris, decreased bone remodeling density due to the stress shielding, and adverse tissue responses due to material wear debris all contribute to the failure of hip implants. Recent research shows that pre-clinical computational finite element analysis (FEA) can be used to estimate four mechanical performance parameters of hip implants which are connected with distinct biomaterials: von Mises stress and deformation, micromotion, wear estimates, and implant fatigue. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical stages are utilized to determine the hip implant biocompatibility and the unfavorable local tissue reactions to different biomaterials during the implementation phase. This research summarizes and analyses the performance of the different biomaterials that are employed in total hip implant systems in the pre-clinical stage using FEA, as well as their performances in in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical studies, which will help researchers in gaining a better understanding of the prospects and challenges in this field.