Co-Administration of Injected and Oral Vaccine Candidates Elicits Improved Immune Responses over Either Route Alone
Infectious diseases continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and although efficacious vaccines are available for many diseases, some parenteral vaccines elicit little or no mucosal antibodies which can be a significant problem since mucosal tissue is the point of entry for 90% of pathogens. In order to provide protection for both serum and mucosal areas, we have tested a combinatorial approach of both parenteral and oral administration of antigens for diseases caused by a viral pathogen, Hepatitis B, and a fungal pathogen, Coccidioides. We demonstrate that co-administration by the parenteral and oral routes is a useful tool to increase the overall immune response. This can include achieving an immune response in tissues that are not elicited when using only one route of administration, providing a higher level of response that can lead to fewer required doses or possibly providing a better response for individuals that are considered poor or non-responders.