Archaeology of the planned location of the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Plant, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas




Greaves, Russell D.
Weston, Jason D.
Tomka, Steve A.
Cox, I. Waynne
Mahoney, Richard B.
Moses, Bruce K.
Neel-Hartman, Jennifer
Wagner, Stacy A.

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Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio


From October 2002 to January 2004, the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) of The University of Texas at San Antonio conducted archaeological investigations for the City of San Antonio in a 2,570.25-acre project area that is the future site of the San Antonio Toyota Motor Manufacturing Plant. The work was conducted under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 2982 with Dr. Steve A. Tomka, CAR Director, serving as Principal Investigator. The project included the reconnaissance of over 500 acres of the project area, the excavation of 376 shovel tests, 250 mechanical auger borings, and 42 backhoe and Gradall trenches. The backhoe and Gradall trenches were dug for geoarchaeological investigations and in one instance to search for a presumed historic cemetery. Reassessment for National Register of Historic Places and State Archeological Landmark status was conducted for 16 previously documented archaeological sites (41BX125, 41BX349, 41BX652, 41BX653, 41BX654, 41BX655, 41BX656, 41BX657, 41BX658, 41BX659, 41BX660, 41BX661, 41BX662, 41BX676, 41BX681, and 41BX832) and five newly identified sites (41BX1571–41BX1575). Of the 21 sites examined during this project, 12 are prehistoric, seven are historic and two have both prehistoric and historic components. The prehistoric sites are lithic and burned rockscatters, possibly the remnants of campsites. Diagnostic artifacts found in previous surveys indicate Archaic and Late Prehistoric time frames. The historic sites present are farmstead-ranch complexes including residential structures and outbuildings. Also encountered were tenant farmer residences and a small brick kiln. The historic components are primarily late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century, although original surveys noted early-nineteenth-century artifacts. All artifacts collected are curated at the Center for Archaeological Research laboratory facility.



archaeological investigation, archaeology, Texas archaeology, archaeological surveying, Bexar County, San Antonio, excavations, Indians of North America, automobile plant location, backhoe trenches, shovel tests, auger borings