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    An Intensive Pedestrian Survey for the Proposed Salado Greenway Trails-Rogers Ranch Connection, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2024-02-12) Wigley, Sarah; Burns, David
    On August 23, 2023, the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted an intensive pedestrian survey of the proposed City of San Antonio (COSA) parks project, Rogers Ranch Connection to the Salado Greenway Trails network. This trail connection is located in the Rogers Ranch neighborhood in north San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. The work was conducted in response to a request from Adams Environmental, Inc. (AEI), which is an environmental subcontractor to the project engineering team, Bain Medina Bain. The project took place on land that will ultimately be an easement controlled by a subdivision of the State of Texas, and therefore the project required review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) under the Antiquities Code of Texas, as well as by the COSA Office of Historic Preservation (OHP) under the Unified Development Code (Article 6 35-630 to 35-634). The planned modifications also potentially impact Waters of the United States, which would trigger provisions of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and regulatory review by the Fort Worth District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). CAR obtained Texas Antiquities Permit No. 31308 prior to the commencement of fieldwork. Cynthia Munoz, CAR Interim Director, served as the Principal Investigator for the project, and Sarah Wigley served as the Project Archaeologist. CAR excavated 18 shovel tests within the project area, which included an approximately 1 kilometer long, 3-meter wide trail alignment, a proposed trail head measuring approximately 0.1 hectare (ha [0.25 acres]), and two proposed staging areas measuring approximately 0.4 ha (0.9 acres) for a total of 8 ha (19.8 acres). Four shovel tests were positive for cultural material, including chipped stone and burned rock and were ultimately included within the boundaries of newly recorded site 41BX2552. The CAR recommends that site 41BX2552 is not eligible for designation as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL) or listing in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), and CAR also recommends that construction proceed as planned. All artifacts collected and records generated during the course of this project are permanently curated at the CAR under accession number 2773.
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    Archaeological Monitoring along North St. Mary's Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2024-01-24) Wall, Peggy
    In January 2021, the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) conducted archaeological monitoring for the North Saint Mary’s Street Improvements Project in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. This work was in response to a request from the City of San Antonio (COSA) Public Works Department (PWD). The project entailed monitoring excavations for utility improvements along North St. Mary’s Street from East Dewey Place to north of East Ashby Place. Archival maps suggested that this area of North St. Mary’s Street could intersect with the Upper Labor Acequia (41BX1273), the last Spanish Colonial acequia to be built in San Antonio. The Upper Labor Acequia has been recommended as eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). San Antonio’s acequia system has also been recognized as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. As public land owned by the COSA, a political subdivision of the State of Texas, the project falls under Article VI, Sec. 35-630 to 35-634, of COSA’s Unified Development Code (UDC). The project is also governed by the Texas Antiquities Code, and the work was performed under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 30061. The initial monitoring area was 1.35 ha (3.33 acres) and excavation within this area began on April 1, 2021. After portions of the Upper Labor Acequia were found on the west side of North St. Mary’s Street during the excavation for the new gas lines, the monitoring area was revised by the COSA’s Office of Historic Preservation (OHP) to an area along North St. Mary’s Street between East Courtland Place and East Ashby Place, to include parts of Terry Court. The revised monitoring area was 0.46 ha (1.15 acres). A permit amendment specifying that revision was approved by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) on June 3, 2021. In July 2022, CAR was contracted to provide additional archaeological monitoring within the monitoring area for the installation of electrical conduit, light poles, irrigation lines, and landscaping. Archaeological monitoring was completed on July 10, 2023. Dr. Raymond P. Mauldin served as Principal Investigator for the THC antiquities permit until his retirement in January 2022, at which time David Yelacic assumed this role. Cynthia Munoz took over in September 2023 after David Yelacic left the CAR. Peggy Wall served as the Project Archaeologist throughout the project. CAR monitored 0.9 km of excavations. The area monitored encompassed at least 0.17 ha (0.42 acres). Remnants of the Upper Labor Acequia were found on the west side of North St. Mary’s Street between East Courtland Place and East Ashby Place, and in the intersection of East Ashby Place and North St. Mary’s Street. CAR recommends that these remnants of the Upper Labor Acequia, site 41BX1273, are eligible for inclusion into the NRHP and as a SAL, as they were preserved in situ. The CAR also recommends that any future subsurface excavations near these features be monitored by archaeologists to ensure preservation of these acequia sections and to further delineate the full extent of the Upper Labor Acequia in this area. After quantification and in accordance with guidelines and approvals from the THC and the COSA, artifacts possessing little scientific value were discarded. In this case, that consisted of all artifacts. In accordance with THC guidelines, all project generated and related documents have been curated at the CAR under accession number 2791.
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    CPS Energy 2021 Annual Permit: Final Report for Ten CPS Energy Projects, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2024-01-10) Wigley, Sarah; Wall, Peggy; Paige, Jonathan; Kemp, Leonard; McKenzie, Clinton M. M.; Yelacic, David; Munoz, Cynthia
    From July 27, 2021 through January 5, 2023, the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Center for Archaeological Research (CAR), in response to a request from Adams Environmental, Inc. (AEI), conducted cultural resources investigations on 10 project areas for CPS Energy (CPS). Because CPS is owned by the City of San Antonio (COSA) and is defined as a political subdivision of the State of Texas, the projects require review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) under the Antiquities Code of Texas. CAR obtained an annual permit, Texas Antiquities Permit (TAP) Number 30154. Cynthia Munoz served as the Principal Investigator and Sarah Wigley, Peggy Wall, Jonathan Paige, and Leonard Kemp served as the Project Archaeologists. The 10 archaeological investigations were conducted in advance of the installation of a gas main, utility poles, and substation infrastructure. They consisted of five intensive survey projects with shovel testing, one intensive survey project with shovel testing and backhoe trenching, and four cultural monitoring projects. Four new sites, 41BX2480, 41BX2481, 41BX2482, and 41BX2528 were recorded on two project areas, Whisper Falls and Howard Road Parcel 345. CAR recommends site 41BX2528 on the Howard Road Parcel and the portions of sites 41BX2481 and 41BX2482 within the Whisper Falls linear project alignment as ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) or for designation as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). No further work is recommended for the three sites. CAR recommends the portion of site 41BX2480 within the Whisper Falls linear project alignment as having undetermined eligibility for listing in the NRHP or designation as a SAL due to moderately dense, deeply buried deposits and preservation of organic material suitable for radiocarbon dating. Because additional testing is necessary to make an eligibility determination, CAR recommends avoidance of the site. To comply with CAR’s recommendations for 41BX2480, CPS planned boring methodology for installation to successfully avoid impacting deposits associated with the site. No materials were collected as part of these investigations. Associated records generated during this project are curated at CAR in accordance with the THC guidelines under CAR Accession 2742.
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    Archaeological Documentation of Trolley Tracks on Commerce Street Between Frio Street and the Alazan Creek, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2023-12-19) Wigley, Sarah
    From January 2021 until July of 2023, the Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio conducted archaeological documentation of trolley track remnants located along West Commerce Street between the Alazan Creek and Frio Street. This work was conducted in response to a request from the City of San Antonio (COSA). The project area is located immediately west of downtown San Antonio in Bexar County, Texas on COSA property. The work was conducted under the requirements of COSA’s Unified Development Code (UDC) (Article 6 35-630 to 35-634) and the Antiquities Code of Texas during an improvements project. CAR obtained permit Texas Antiquities Permit No. 9720 prior to the beginning of fieldwork. Dr. Raymond Mauldin served as the original Principal Investigator (PI) on the permit. Cynthia Munoz served as the final PI. Sarah Wigley served as the Project Archaeologist. The project area extends along 931 meters (3054 ft.) of West Commerce Street, spanning roughly 2.4 ha (6 acres), and its eastern edge lies within the Cattleman Square Historic District. The focus of the project was the documentation of the trolley tracks located below the street. San Antonio’s trolley system operated from 1878-1933 (Watson 1982). During the course of this project, steel ties encased in concrete from the line that ran along West Commerce Street were documented below the street before they were removed to permit access for the installation of utilities during the course of a street improvements project. The tracks are historically relevant due to their role in the expansion and development of the city of San Antonio, although the archaeological research value of the tracks themselves is limited. CAR recommends no additional work. The sections uncovered during the course of this project were documented as part of the previously recorded site 41BX2163. No artifacts or samples were collected over the course of this project. Records generated during the course of this project are permanently curated at the CAR under accession # 2756.
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    Alazán Creek Trail System Project, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2023-07-19) Zapata, José E.
    The University of Texas at San Antonio Center for Archaeological Research (CAR), in response to a request from RE/SPEC Company LLC (RESPEC), conducted archaeological testing and monitoring for the Alazán Creek Trail Project. The work was completed on behalf of the San Antonio River Authority (SARA) as part of the Westside Creeks Project. Multiple federal, state, and local agencies were involved, including the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the City of San Antonio (COSA) Office of Historic Preservation (OHP), and the Texas Historical Commission (THC). The Alazán Creek Trail Project consisted of two separate components. The first component was an Alamo Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (AAMPO) and COSA trail system that extends over three miles along the Alazán Creek, beginning at Lombrano Street continuing south to just north of S. Laredo Street. This first component was in part funded by the Federal Highway Administration administered by the Texas Department of Transportation. Projects receiving federal funding must comply with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation of 1966, as amended, and its implementing regulations, 36 Code of Federal Regulations Part 800. In addition, a Section 404 permit of the Clean Water Act was granted to RESPEC in regard to any discharge into Alazán Creek. The project was assigned Project Number SWF-2017-413. This permit required consultation between RESPEC and the USACE. The work associated with the first component included background research of the project area, a pedestrian survey, shovel testing, and backhoe trenching of a 6.1 km (3.8 mile) long segment of a multi-use trail, with a 15.2 m (50 ft.) wide easement. The total area of the APE including the trail and trailheads is 1.9 hectares (4.7 acres). This work was completed between February 2018 and April 2018. The THC granted Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux Texas Antiquities Permit (TAP) 8309 to conduct this component of the project. The second component was a COSA-funded package of trailheads, connections, landscaping, and amenities to enhance the connectivity of the trail system to the surrounding neighborhoods. COSA is defined as a political subdivision under the Antiquities Code of Texas, Section 191.003(4). As such, the project was obligated to consider the impacts that it would have on known and unknown historic properties. In addition, under COSA’s Unified Development Code, Chapter 35, the city is required to consider the impact to known or potential archaeological sites and/ or deposits and to avoid or mitigate those effects. The second component involved CAR monitoring construction for street-level trailheads and trail connectors. The second component occurred at irregular intervals between March 2020 and July 2021. THC granted Dr. Marceaux TAP 8310 to conduct this component of the project. The project archaeologist was José Zapata. Leonard Kemp stepped in as Principal Investigator upon the departure of Dr. Marceaux. No new sites or features were recorded by CAR during the pedestrian survey, shovel testing, backhoe trenching, or monitoring. However, during mechanical grading, two large historic trash deposits were uncovered and reported to CAR by SpawGlass. CAR documented the first deposit as an early twentieth century trash midden designated 41BX2433. CAR consulted with THC and the OHP, who allowed the contractor to proceed with construction. A search of CAR records failed to find any documentation that we consulted with the USACE concerning 41BX2433. CAR recommends that the remaining portion of 41BX2433 is eligible for inclusion to NRHP and as SAL based on Criteria D under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. The property and associated materials are likely to contribute to our knowledge of the twentieth century West Side community. CAR recommends avoidance. If this is not possible, CAR recommends that a mitigation plan be developed and implemented to gather significant data.
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    National Register Eligibility Testing of Ten Sites on Camp Maxey, Lamar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, 2023-05) Kemp, Leonard; Wigley, Sarah; Paige, Jonathan
    The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) eligibility testing of ten archaeological sites located on Camp Maxey, a facility operated by the Texas Military Department (TMD) in Lamar County, Texas. While the project was not conducted under a Texas Antiquities Permit, it was conducted in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Antiquities Code of Texas. The testing was performed under Interagency Cooperation Agreement TMD20-ENV-15, with Dr. Raymond Mauldin serving as Principal Investigator and Leonard Kemp serving as Project Archaeologist. Prior to testing, CAR performed reconnaissance of 12 archaeological sites having NRHP undetermined eligibility. These sites are 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR175, 41LR177, 41LR184, 41LR203, 41LR213, 41LR226, and 41LR238. Shovel tests were excavated on seven of these sites to refine the placement of test units for the current project and any future projects. CAR excavated 93 shovel tests on 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR213, and 41LR226. Ten of the 12 sites were selected and tested under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended. These ten sites are 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR175, 41LR177, 41LR203, 41LR226, and 41LR238. Work was conducted in the summer of 2021 and late spring of 2022. CAR excavated 23 1-x-1 m test units and screened approximately 10.1 m3 of deposits. CAR recovered four bifaces, a uniface, two cores, two edge modified flakes, six native ceramic fragments (four of which refitted), 165 pieces of debitage, 2.45 kg of non-feature burned rock, burned faunal bone, and a quartzite crystal, as well as historic artifacts, including a 1903 U.S. penny, glass fragments, and a bullet. CAR identified two burned rock features, one at 41LR159 and another at 41LR161. CAR used three interrelated research domains to determine NRHP eligibility of the ten sites. These criteria are the chronological potential of a site, the integrity of a site, and the content of a site. Based on this research, CAR recommends that site 41LR159 is eligible for listing on the NRHP. Sites 41LR154, 41LR161, 41LR162, 41LR165, 41LR175, 41LR177, 41LR203, 41LR226, and 41LR238 are recommended as not eligible for NRHP listing. In addition, CAR redefined the boundaries of four sites, 41LR154, 41LR159, 41LR161, and 41LR162 reflecting findings from the current investigation. Following analyses and quantification, artifacts associated with this project possessing little scientific value were discarded pursuant to Chapter 26.27(g)(2) of the Antiquities Code of Texas and in consultation with the TMD. All cultural materials and records obtained and/or generated during the project were prepared in accordance with federal regulation 36 CFR part 79 and THC requirements for State Held-in-Trust collections and placed in Accession file number 2603.
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    Archaeological Monitoring for the Weston Urban Open Space Park, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, 2023-05) Figueroa, Antonia; Zapata, José E.; McKenzie, Clinton M. M.
    The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted archaeological monitoring for the Weston Urban Open Space Park in downtown San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas between January 2019 and April 2020. Archaeological monitoring was conducted on behalf of Weston Urban LLC for construction activities associated with the development of the Western Urban Open Space Park. The project was located on private property and privately funded and therefore did not require review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC). However, at the municipal level, the project fell under the City of San Antonio (COSA) Unified Development Code (UDC) (Article 635-630 to 35-634), because the project area, 0.6 hectares in size, is one block north of the Main and Military Plazas Historic District. Construction activities that required monitoring by CAR staff included excavations that were 61 cm or more below surface and in areas most likely to encounter significant cultural resources. Antonia L. Figueroa served as the initial project archaeologist. After her departure from CAR, José Zapata and Clinton McKenzie served as co-project archaeologists. The work was started under the direction of Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux (former CAR director). Dr. Raymond P. Mauldin subsequently served as principal investigator for the project. During archaeological monitoring four features were encountered. The four features included the previously recorded San Pedro Acequia (41BX337); a basement related to the original location of the Majestic Theatre (1913-1929) and recorded as site 41BX2347; a foundation associated with the First Presbyterian Church, recorded as site 41BX2348; and a series of trash deposits containing artifacts of circa 1830s to 1850 within the northwest quadrant of the project area, recorded as the Cardona Santos-Coy Trash Deposits, site 41BX2394. After consultation with City of San Antonio Office of Historic Preservation (OSA-OHP) and the client, the exposed segment of San Pedro Acequia was shielded with a layer of geotextile fabric and sand and thus protected from impact. Further archaeological work on the remaining features was not recommended and construction proceeded as planned. Ceramics and an ornamental pewter leaf collected from recorded sites are permanently curated at the Center for Archaeological Research according to Texas Historical Commission guidelines. All project documentation, including photographs and field forms, are permanently curated at the CAR facilities in accession file number 2325.
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    Archaeological Investigations on the Grounds of the San Antonio State Hospital, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, 2023-05) Wigley, Sarah; Paige, Jonathan
    In May of 2022, the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) staff conducted an archaeological survey with shovel testing and backhoe trenching in response to a request from Chesney Morales Partners, Inc. The survey documented three previously unrecorded sites (41BX2513, 41BX2514, and 41BX2515). In December of 2022, CAR staff conducted testing on two of these sites (41BX2513 and 41BX2515). The archaeological work was conducted in advance of development of a warehouse located on the grounds of the San Antonio State Hospital. As a state-owned property, the project requires review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) under the Antiquities Code of Texas. CAR obtained Texas Antiquities Permit (TAP) Number 30605, issued to Sarah Wigley, Principal Investigator. Dr. Jonathan Paige served as the Project Archaeologist during the testing portion of the project. The project area encompassed 4.2 acres (1.7 ha.) in south-central San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. Thirteen shovel tests, four backhoe trenches, and two test units were excavated. CAR initially recommended avoidance of impact to sites 41BX2513 and 41BX2515 on the basis of survey results. Site 41BX2514 was found to contain mixed historic and precontact deposits in highly disturbed contexts during the initial survey. No further work was recommended at this site, which was found to be ineligible for the inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) or for designation as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). Because construction plans proposed to impact sites 41BX2513 and 41BX2515, additional testing to make an eligibility determination was necessary. During testing, both sites were found to contain mixed precontact and historic deposits, and site 41BX2515 was found to be disturbed by utilities. No temporally diagnostic artifacts or cultural features were documented in either site. Both sites were recommended as not eligible for inclusion in the NRHP or for SAL designation. The THC concurred with the CAR’s recommendations. Following laboratory processing and analysis, selected items that were determined to have no remaining scientific value were discarded with the concurrence of Texas Health and Human Services (HHS) and the THC. All remaining artifacts collected and records generated during the course of this project are curated at the CAR as accession number 2674 in accordance with THC guidelines.
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    National Register Eligibility Testing of Sites 41BP471, 41BP477, and 41BP666, on Camp Swift, Bastrop County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, 2023-05) Kemp, Leonard; Kim, Lynn; Mauldin, Raymond
    The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio conducted National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) eligibility testing of three archaeological sites, 41BP471, 41BP477, and 41BP666, on Camp Swift, a Texas Military Department (TMD) training facility located in Bastrop County, Texas. The project was conducted in accordance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended, as well as the Camp Swift section of the TMD’s Installation Cultural Resource Management Plan (ICRMP). While not accomplished under a Texas Antiquities Permit, the investigation of the three sites was conducted in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Antiquities Code of Texas. The testing was performed under Interagency Cooperation Agreement TX17-2053-ENV, with Dr. Raymond Mauldin serving as Principal Investigator and Leonard Kemp serving as Project Archaeologist. CAR excavated 14 1-x-1 m test units and screened approximately 18.5 m3 of deposits from the three sites in October and November of 2020. CAR identified two burned rock features, one at site 41BP477 and another at site 41BP666. CAR collected 429 pieces of chipped stone debitage, a core, and a small number of chipped stone tools (n=5) including bifaces, edge modified flakes, and a projectile point from the current investigation. In addition, CAR collected 1275 pieces of burned rock weighing approximately 23,488 g. During the current investigation one diagnostic, a Middle Archaic Nolan-like point was found at 41BP471 during this testing. This is only the second Middle Archaic point found on the base. Three charred samples were submitted from 41BP471 and two samples from site 41BP477 to DirectAMS for radiocarbon dating. The calibrated radiocarbon dates fall within the Late Archaic and Late Prehistoric periods as is common for radiocarbon dates from Camp Swift and the surrounding region. CAR used three interrelated research domains to determine the NRHP eligibility of the three sites. These criteria are the chronological potential of a site, the integrity of a site, and the content of a site. Based upon these analyses, CAR recommends that 41BP471, 41BP477, and 41BP66 should be considered eligible for listing to the NRHP. Following analyses and quantification, artifacts associated with this project possessing little scientific value were discarded pursuant to Chapter 26.27(g)(2) of the Antiquities Code of Texas and in consultation with both the TMD and the Texas Historical Commission. All remaining cultural materials and all records obtained and/or generated during the project were prepared in accordance with federal regulation 36 CFR part 79 and THC requirements for State Held-in-Trust collections and placed in Accession File 2471.
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    Descriptions of and Stabilization Strategies for 13 Archaeological Sites on Laughlin Air Force Base, Val Verde County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, 2022-10) Kemp, Leonard
    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Center for Archaeological Research (CAR), in response to a request from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), investigated 13 archaeological sites located on Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Val Verde County, Texas. The project was conducted in accordance with Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA; 54 U.S.C. §§ 306101‒306107, 306109‒306114), which mandates that Federal agencies are responsible for the preservation of historic properties owned or controlled by any given agency, in this case the United States Department of the Air Force (DAF). Argonne tasked the CAR with relocation of the 13 sites, documenting their boundaries, providing an assessment of their condition, and proposing site stabilization strategies. The field investigation was conducted in two phases. The primary goals of the first phase were to confirm the locations of the 13 archaeological sites and to establish photopoints at each site to document site conditions over time. From August 10 through 13, 2020, the CAR was able to relocate 11 sites (41VV1653, 41VV1654, 41VV1655, 41VV1683, 41VV1685, and 41VV1686‒41VV1691). Site 41VV1684, a lithic scatter, is believed to have been destroyed during the construction of a gym facility and parking lot. Site 41VV1682 was not located during this first phase. The second phase consisted of a Transect Recording Unit (TRU) survey that occurred from September 16 through 21, 2020 and on September 24, 2020. The location of site 41VV1682 was confirmed on September 24, 2020, and the site was surveyed on that date. Overall, the CAR surveyed 12 sites divided into 322 TRUs. Each TRU was 3 x 30 m, recording an area of 28,980 m2. The CAR documented 15 features, including a sheet midden, burned rock middens, fire-cracked rock (FCR) scatters, and historic features associated with site 41VV1682, an early twentieth-century ranch. Eight diagnostic projectile points ranging in age from Late Paleoindian to Late Archaic were also recorded. Based on the results of the survey, the CAR recommends the continued use of the photopoint system at least twice per year at all sites other than 41VV1684 to monitor site conditions. If approved, the CAR will assist in the implementation of the system and conducting training for Laughlin AFB personnel. In addition, the CAR recommends several on-the-ground site stabilization measures be undertaken by Laughlin AFB. These actions include the removal of a sign identifying the location of 41VV1653, the closure of specific roads within sites 41VV1654 and 41VV1655 to mitigate impacts to features and site assemblages, and fencing the southeastern portion of the base to enclose and protect sites 41VV1685‒41VV1691 from intrusive livestock and civilian personnel. Finally, the CAR recommends that base hunting instructions be updated to include warnings that collecting artifacts on federal properties is a violation of federal laws and military statutes (Laughlin AFB 2020; Appendix A). All records generated during the project were prepared in accordance with 36 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 79 and Texas Historical Commission (THC) requirements for State Held-in-Trust collections. All project-related materials, including the final report, will be permanently stored at the CAR curation facility, under accession #2352.
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    Archaeological Monitoring and Sampling Excavations at Mission Concepción (41BX12), San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2020-11) Kemp, Leonard
    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) was contracted by Pugh Constructors, Inc. to monitor and sample excavations associated with the installation of a new heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC) for the church at Mission Concepción (41BX12) in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. The Area of Potential Effect is approximately 11 m2. The mission is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a Texas State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). It is also a component of the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park and is administered jointly by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Archdiocese of San Antonio. The project required review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) as the property is listed as a SAL under the Antiquities Code of Texas (Texas Natural Resource Code, Title 9, Chapter 191, and Section 191.092, as amended). The THC awarded Texas Antiquities Permit No. 9420 to Dr. Raymond Mauldin of CAR for the investigation. An Archaeological Resources Protection Act permit was not required, though the NPS will have final review authority on the project. CAR monitored the excavation for utility trenches, HVAC units, and concrete footers for a decorative fence on June 4 and 5, 2020. A small number of artifacts were collected from the main utility trench, and all artifacts were collected from the footer excavations. The artifacts included faunal bone, ceramics, lithics, burned rock and burned clay, and modern glass. No features were observed in any of the excavations. While the area has been heavily impacted by previous construction, there appear to be pockets of intact deposits based on the results of two of the auger excavations that contained undisturbed soil and artifacts in stratigraphic context. If future ground disturbing activities are to take place in this area, CAR recommends that the activity be monitored. Prior to final curation, in accordance with Chapter 26.27(g) (2) of the Antiquities Code of Texas, CAR requested permission from NPS and THC to discard artifact classes that have no remaining scientific or historical value (such as non-feature burned rock, non-diagnostic glass, unidentifiable metal, etc.). All remaining recovered artifacts and project-related materials, including the final report, will be permanently stored at the CAR curation facility. All artifacts will be entered into the NPS Interior Collections Management System (ICMS) used by NPS to manage the curatorial collections for Mission Concepción. The project accession number is 2293.
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    Cultural Resources Monitoring for the San Antonio Light and Print Building Project, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, 2020-12) Perez, Jason Brian; McKenzie, Clinton M. M.; Munoz, Cynthia M.
    Over eight days in May and August 2019, and May, June, July, and September 2020 the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio conducted archaeological monitoring in advance of the planned construction of a 3,000 square foot, five-story addition for the San Antonio Light and Print Building Project located in downtown San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. CAR was contracted by GrayStreet Partners to monitor the mechanical excavation of seven holes for piers to support an elevated walkway and mechanical trenching for the installation of utilities and a 6.1 m emergency vehicular ingress and egress easement ramp leading to a future underground parking area. The project is privately funded and located on privately owned property between Broadway Street, McCullough Avenue, N. Alamo Street, and 4th Street in downtown San Antonio. As a result, the project was not subject to regulatory review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC). The project area is within the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) San Antonio Downtown and River Walk Historic District, which adjoins three other NRHP Historic Districts: Alamo Plaza, Main and Military Plaza, and La Villita. The project is subject to regulatory review by the City of San Antonio (COSA) Office of Historic Preservation (OHP) under the COSA Unified Development Code (Article 6 35-630 to 35-634). Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux, CAR Director, served as the Principal Investigator and managed the project until his departure from CAR, at which time Dr. Raymond Mauldin took over the Principal Investigator role. Jason Brian Perez served as the Project Archaeologist. The project area was 0.47 hectare (1.15 acres). CAR monitored the mechanical drilling of the first two pier holes, it was determined that the starting elevation was approximately 4.5 m below the original ground surface, in culturally sterile sediments. The drilling of the remaining five holes was not monitored. The initial trench excavation for the easement ramp was completed without notifying CAR. A nineteenth-century privy/trash pit feature was identified in the trench wall by CAR archaeologists, and diagnostic artifacts, dating from 1870-1900, were recovered from the backfill. The privy/trash pit feature was associated with the property owned by the Hagans family from 1859-1895, and it was designated as site 41BX2362. CAR recommends that site 41BX2362 is not eligible for NRHP or for listing as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). The CAR recommends no additional testing within the project area and that development proceed. In the event that additional construction reveals archaeological deposits, work should cease, and the City Archaeologist of the COSA-OHP should be notified. COSAOHP concurred with these recommendations. All recovered artifacts were offered to the landowner. Because the landowner failed to respond to several requests, CAR made the decision to curate selected diagnostic artifacts and discard the remainder. All collected artifacts are documented in the CAR’s collection management database. Selected diagnostic artifacts collected from the feature and all project documentation, including photographs, field forms, and a copy of this report were prepared for curation according to THC guidelines. The artifacts and records are permanently curated at the CAR repository as accession file 2266.
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    Archaeological Investigations for the Mother of the Americas Faith Formation Center, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2018) Zapata, José E.
    The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), in response to a request from the Archdiocese of San Antonio, conducted archaeological testing and monitoring for construction activities associated with the Mother of the Americas Faith Formation Center. Archaeological fieldwork was completed between June 2016 and April 2017. The Area of Potential Effect (APE) was adjacent to St. Joseph Catholic Church and Rectory in downtown San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. The St. Joseph Catholic Church is a Recorded Texas Historical Landmark and a contributing building to the Alamo Plaza National Register District. The property is traversed by the Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8), within a River Improvement Overlay District, is reported as the possible site of the Battle of the Alamo funeral pyres, is reported as one of the possible sites of the second location of Mission San Antonio de Valero, the Alamo (41BX6), and is adjacent to the historic Alameda (East Commerce Street). The APE included 0.185 acres of existing parking lot adjacent to the east of St. Joseph Catholic Church. The Archdiocese of San Antonio planned to construct the two-story Mother of the Americas Faith Formation Center in place of the parking lot. These improvements required below-grade excavations of between 3 and 14 ft. and excavations for foundation piers to depths of 30 and 36 ft. below the grade. The City of San Antonio’s (COSA) Office of Historic Preservation (OHP) Historic and Design Review Commission required archaeological investigations under the Unified Development Code, Chapter 35, for the Mother of the Americas Faith Formation Center Project. The project was on private property and did not receive or use any Federal or State funding; therefore, it did not fall under the Antiquities Code of Texas or require regulatory review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC). José Zapata was the Project Archaeologist, and Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux served as Principal Investigator. There was no evidence of the Battle of the Alamo funeral pyres or the second location of Mission San Antonio de Valero, (the Alamo), but testing and monitoring resulted in locating a large intact section of the Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8). For over 100 years, the acequia in this location had been forgotten, as it lay beneath a thin layer of road base and asphalt. Once exposed, a 23-ft. section of the acequia was thoroughly documented and studied before the majority of the feature was preserved and protected. A layer of commercial-grade landscape cloth and sand were laid down to protect the extant sections of acequia before it was backfilled. A 14-ft. section of the acequia’s east wall was removed to accommodate a new pier and beam foundation associated with new development on the property. In addition to architectural features associated with the Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8), a total of 11,890 artifacts were recovered during the investigation. Of these artifacts, more than 95 percent were recovered from sediments inside the Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8) associated with drainage settling. These sediments represent residuals left over after the very last channel-cleaning event. Based primarily on an analysis of the ceramics and personal items recovered from Area A (within the acequia channel), the artifacts date primarily to the mid-to-late nineteenth century. This date corresponds with historical data documenting the close of the acequia. The CAR recommends that the extant portions of the acequia be preserved and protected from future site development and recommends no additional archaeology at this time. CAR also recommends this segment of the Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8) is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and designation as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). In accordance with the Scope of Work for this project, all field notes, analytical notes, photographs, and other project-related documents, along with a copy of the final report, will be curated at CAR. After quantification and completion of analysis, artifacts possessing little scientific value will be discarded. Classes of artifacts specific to this project will likely include glass, metal, and modern material. All other collected artifacts will be retained by the owner and held at CAR under a held-in-trust agreement.
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    Archaeological Monitoring and Limited Testing for Recent Development in Hemisfair Park, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2019) Zapata, José E.; Figueroa, Antonia L.; Smith, C. Stephen; McKenzie, Clinton M. M.
    In response to a request from the City of San Antonio (COSA), and under contract with Poznecki-Camarillo, Inc. (PCI) and Adams Environmental, Inc., the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) of The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted archaeological monitoring and limited testing for three redevelopment projects at Hemisfair Park between January 2015 and February 2017. These investigations followed monitoring and test excavations previously conducted by Prewitt and Associates in 2014 and an extensive archival report from 2013 (Dase 2013; Fields and Dase 2014; Fields et al. 2015). The project area intersects or is adjacent to four historic districts or proposed historic districts. The La Villita Historic District and Lavaca Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and the River Walk Historic District is eligible for the NRHP. The HemisFair ’68 Historic District was recently recommended as eligible for the NRHP (Dase 2013:65). All four are also local historic districts. Archaeological services were in response to a request for full-time monitoring of subsurface excavations with the potential to impact significant archaeological resources within the project area. Given the project area is primarily COSA-owned property, the project fell under the COSA Unified Development Code (Article 6 35-630 to 35-634). The project also required regulatory review by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) under the Antiquities Code of Texas. Work was conducted under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 7118. Dr. Raymond Mauldin was Principal Investigator until July 2015, when Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux took over the role. Stephen Smith, Antonia Figueroa, and José Zapata served as Project Archaeologists. The work covered in this report involved three related subprojects: Yanaguana Garden, Historic Homes, and Internal Streets. The project area was originally part of the Labores de Valero, or the farmlands of Mission San Antonio de Valero. Some 250 years later, the area was the setting for the San Antonio World’s Fair, commonly known as HemisFair or HemisFair ’68. The earliest archaeological evidence identified during these investigations was the Spanish Colonial Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8), also known as the Acequia del Alamo, the irrigation canal that provided water for the mission pueblo farmlands. CAR staff also documented features associated with early residences constructed in the 1850s, as well as structural remnants and features related to later nineteenth- and twentieth-century occupations. Work on the different subprojects often occurred concurrently, and archaeologists documented numerous historic-period features within the 8.8-acre Area of Potential Effect (APE). CAR staff revisited several previously recorded sites and recorded three new historic home sites (41BX2123, 41BX2124, and 41BX2246). CAR recommends none of the newly recorded sites are eligible for listing on the NRHP or as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). The most significant result was the location of extant parts of the Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8), along the north and south end of the project area. CAR recommends these existing sections of the Acequia Madre de Valero (41BX8) are eligible to the NRHP and as a SAL. Wide-ranging past development projects and construction activities have disturbed and/or caused substantial impacts across the project area. However, current work demonstrated that some undisturbed areas with intact archaeological features remain. Importantly, significant cultural resources persist at depths of less than 12 inches (in.) below the surface. CAR recommends avoiding ground disturbance in undisturbed areas and in the areas with known historic resources. This is especially true along the path of the acequia, which is now clearly marked by paving stones at the south end. If ground disturbance is unavoidable, then CAR recommends monitoring excavations or a comprehensive systematic effort to recover significant data. All records generated during the project were prepared in accordance with federal regulations 36 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 79 and THC requirements for State Held-in-Trust collections. In consultation with the THC, subsequent to proper analyses and/or quantification, artifacts possessing little scientific value will be discarded pursuant to Chapter 26.27 (g)(2) of the Antiquities Code of Texas.
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    An Archaeological Survey and Resource Assessment of 1,445 Acres in Southern Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2018) Mauldin, Raymond P.; Figueroa, Antonia L.; Kemp, Leonard; McKenzie, Clinton M. M.; Wigley, Sarah
    The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) performed an archaeological survey of 1,445 acres within a 1,833-acre Project Area south of Mission Espada in Bexar County, Texas. Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux served as the Principal Investigator for the project, and Antonia L. Figueroa served as the Project Archaeologist. The survey was conducted in 2016 and 2017 on behalf of REDUS Texas Land, LLC (REDUS). The Survey Area is not within the City of San Antonio (COSA). However, COSA has review authority under the auspices of the Espada Conservation Subdivision Master Development Plan (2008). Therefore, CAR consulted with the COSA Office of Historic Preservation (OHP) prior to the start of the project. The principal goal of the survey was to document prehistoric and historic archaeological resources in the area that may be impacted by future development. CAR surveyed roughly 1,445 acres of the Project Area. About 384 acres were excluded from the survey as they were identified as a likely conservation easement. In addition, a small previously surveyed area associated with a hike and bike trail was excluded. Two different survey methods were used. About 518 acres recently had been plowed and were under cultivation. In these areas, CAR personnel walked transects spaced at 15 meters (m). Thirty-seven shovel tests were excavated in these fields to look for potential sites based on the exposure of material by the plow. In the remaining area, visibility was limited. CAR used 30-m transects and excavated 177 shovel tests in this 927-acre area. CAR completed archival research, conducted an oral history interview with a longtime resident of the area, processed two radiocarbon samples from profiles, and reviewed the west bank of the San Antonio River, which forms a portion of the eastern boundary of the larger Project Area, for archaeological deposits. Within the 1,445-acre Survey Area, CAR defined four new historic sites (41BX2145, 41BX2146, 41BX2147, and 41BX2149), three new prehistoric sites (41BX2148, 41BX2190, and 41BX2191), and observed several irrigation ditches, including the Espada Acequia (41BX269) and a previously recorded ditch (41BX1796). CAR also identified a low-density background scatter of historic and prehistoric isolated artifacts. A fourth prehistoric site, 41BX2200, was recorded along the riverbank and is represented by a radiocarbon date of 3516 +/- 34 (3884-3696 cal BP) on a buried feature, along with a core and burned rock below the river cut. With the exception of sites 41BX269 (Espada Acequia) and the Late Archaic deposit on 41BX2200, none of the sites appear to contain significant data. However, two of the sites (41BX2190 and 41BX2191) have not been shovel tested, as they were discovered during site revisits. In addition, given the exposure patterns and the potential for burial of material in this Project Area, CAR suggests that there is a moderate likelihood that buried cultural deposits are present in many sections of the Survey Area. Backhoe trenching should be conducted to eliminate areas of concern, especially if impacts greater than 60 cm are to occur. Finally, note that all collected artifacts and records generated during this project were prepared for curation according to Texas Historical Commission (THC) guidelines. The artifacts and records are permanently curated at CAR as Accession no. 1947, consistent with an agreement with the property owner.
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    The 2006 UTSA Field School at Mission San Antonio de Valero (41BX6), the Alamo, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2017) Zapata, José E.
    The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), the Texas General Land Office (GLO), and the Alamo Complex Management collaborated to finalize this study of Mission San Antonio de Valero (41BX6), also known as the Alamo. The study was conducted under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 4194, with Dr. Raymond Mauldin serving as Principal Investigator. Dr. Steve Tomka was the original principal investigator on the project. In February 2006, the UTSA-Department of Anthropology’s Center for Archaeological Research approached several agencies regarding the possibility of hosting the 2006 Archaeology Summer Field School. The Daughters of the Republic of Texas (DRT), at that time custodians of the Alamo for the State of Texas, expressed immediate interest. Following the initial contacts, the CAR’s representatives met with David Stewart of the Alamo and Carolyn Peterson of Ford, Powell and Carson, Architects. Ford, Powell and Carson had been hired by the DRT to develop a Master Plan that would outline the direction of future developments within the Alamo Compound. The goal of the meeting was to identify areas of the compound that were to be impacted by short- and long-term improvements within the boundaries of the compound. Since archaeological testing would be required in advance of such disturbances and given the availability of UTSA-Department of Anthropology students and staff during the summer, it was agreed that areas be selected based on Areas of Potential Effect (APE). Area 1 was located along the east end of the north wall. Area 2 was located at an interior corner along the south edge of the Long Barrack. Area 3 was located along the east wall of the Convento Courtyard. In summary, the areas investigated reflect portions of the compound that had been slated for impacts during future improvements to the compound, as identified within the Alamo Master Plan Report (Ford, Powell and Carson 2011). The five-week field school was carried out from July 12 through August 7, 2006. A total of 10 units were excavated, and only 3 of these had intact Spanish Colonial deposits. Two features were located and recorded at the north wall, with no other features noted in the other two areas. The two features were likely trash pits or middens and were found in association with Spanish Colonial deposits. The investigations at Mission San Antonio de Valero (41BX6) accomplished two principal goals: 1) the collection of additional information concerning the construction and use of the structures and grounds at Mission San Antonio de Valero; and 2) it served as a training ground for the development of aspiring archaeologists under the supervision of professional staff.
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    An Intensive Archaeological Investigation of the Dunn-Meaney Property in Corpus Christi, Nueces County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2017) Wigley, Sarah; Perez, Jason
    In January 2017, the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted an archaeological survey of approximately one acre (66-x-60 [m] meters) of private property owned by Father Patrick Meaney. The survey was requested by Father Meaney in order to investigate potential archaeological resources in the area prior to sale. A pedestrian survey with shovel testing was conducted to identify potential archaeological resources within the project area. Fifteen shovel tests in total were excavated, five of which were positive for cultural material. No cultural features or temporally diagnostic artifacts were recorded. CAR staff documented one prehistoric site on the property, 41NU381. Records generated during this project were prepared for curation according to Texas Historical Commission (THC) guidelines and are permanently curated at the CAR at UTSA. All artifacts collected will be returned to Father Patrick Meaney.
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    Archaeological Investigations at Travis Park, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2017) Figueroa, Antonia L.
    In February 2014 and under contracted with the San Antonio Parks and Recreation Department (SAPRD), the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted archaeological investigations prior to improvements within Travis Park in central San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. Given the historic significance of the park, the CAR focused investigations in areas slated for subsurface impacts as well as the monitoring of some improvements-related activities. The investigations were carried out under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 6779 with Dr. Steve Tomka serving as the Principal Investigator; however, Dr. Raymond Mauldin took over the role of Principal Investigator in April 2014. Antonia Figueroa served as the Project Archaeologist, and Preston Beecher was the field leader. Proposed improvements in Travis Park that required archaeological work included: 1) the installation of a concrete slab to be located in the dog-run area measuring 15-x-2.5 m and accompanying sidewalks; and 2) the installation of electrical and water lines. The archaeological fieldwork included the excavation of 55 shovel tests. Prehistoric and historic material were recovered from shovel testing efforts on the western and southern portions of the park. This area of the park was assigned site trinomial 41BX2142. Though some of the APE has been impacted by utilities, the presence of cultural material was intact in some areas. Although there was a lack of features and a low density of artifacts, monitoring is recommended if these areas of the park are impacted in future endeavors. Artifacts collected and records generated during this project were prepared for curation according to Texas Historical Commission guidelines and are permanently curated at the CAR at UTSA.
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    Archaeological Monitoring for Ashley Road Project, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, 2017
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2017) Figueroa, Antonia L.
    In March and June of 2016, the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) conducted archaeological monitoring of the construction associated with the Citywide Bridge Program Ashley Road Project located in South Bexar County, Texas. The archaeological investigations and construction monitoring were conducted under Texas Antiquities Committee (TAC) Permit No. 7589 with Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux serving as the Principal Investigator and Antonia Figueroa as the Project Archaeologist. The goal of archaeological monitoring was to identify any historical properties or features that might be present in the project area. To achieve this goal, CAR staff members monitored all below-ground construction excavations. One feature was identified on the west bank of Sixmile Creek, and CAR staff documented it as a site (41BX2138). The site is a small historic trash dump dating to the early twentieth century. CAR does not recommend further work on the site or in the Area of Potential Effect, and CAR recommends construction proceed as planned. All collected artifacts and project associated documentation are permanently curated at the CAR facility.
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    Archaeological Investigations for the Lockwood and Dignowity Parks Improvements Project, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2019-11) Zapata, José E.
    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Center for Archaeological Research (CAR), in response to a request from the City of San Antonio (COSA), conducted an archaeological survey for the Lockwood and Dignowity Parks Improvements Project in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. The work was completed in January 2019, and it consisted of shovel testing and backhoe trenching within the 3.4-hectare (8.5-acre) Area of Potential Effect (APE). The Lockwood and Dignowity parks are owned by the COSA and lie within the locally designated Dignowity Hill Historic District; therefore, the project falls under the COSA Unified Development Code. The project also falls under the Texas Antiquities Code, and the archaeological investigations were conducted under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 8710. Paul Shawn Marceaux, CAR Director, served as the Principal Investigator, with José Zapata serving as the Project Archaeologist. The archaeological investigation resulted in the location and recording of three new sites. Site 41BX2294 is an elongated multi-component site that began at the southeast corner of Lockwood Park and extended into the northeast quadrant of Dignowity Park. Site 41BX2295 is a historic site located at the northwest corner of Lockwood Park. CAR proposes that neither site is eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) nor for listing as a State Antiquities Landmark (SAL). The two sites have been significantly impacted by previous construction that affected their integrity, and neither contained features (e.g., a midden) or artifact assemblages that would increase the knowledge of the prehistory or history of Texas. Excavation of a backhoe trench located site 41BX2296, a Civil War-era feature at the southeast corner of Lockwood Park. Research suggests this is the only Civil War-era feature recorded in San Antonio, and CAR recommends 41BX2296 is eligible for inclusion to the NRHP under Criterion D (36 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 60.4), as the site may yield important historic information. The CAR also recommends 41BX2296 merits SAL status because the site can contribute to the knowledge of the Civil War Period in Texas. The park development plans include the installation of a linear arrangement of porch swings along the southeast quadrant of Lockwood Park. Site preparation for these swings will likely impact the Civil War-era fortification; therefore, CAR recommends avoiding impacts to this site. Other impacts include the installation of a sewer line at the north end of Dignowity Park, and CAR recommends monitoring in this area. In addition, Burnett Street currently separates the Lockwood and Dignowity parks, but this street segment will be razed in order to landscape and merge the two parks.