A cultural resource survey for Medina Electric Cooperative, Inc., in Uvalde, Medina, and Frio counties, Texas




Frkuska, Augustine J.
Frkuska, Elizabeth G.

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Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio


The Center for Archaeological Research (CAR), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), under contract with Alexander Utility Engineering, Inc., (letter dated May 5, 1980), conducted an archaeological survey for the Medina Electric Cooperative, Inc. Although the CAR was contracted in May 1980, at the request of Medina Electric Cooperative, Inc., the actual survey was not carried out until February 25-March 1, 1981. The survey, which was conducted in three neighboring south Texas counties (Fig. 1), was concentrated along proposed electrical distribution lines at D'Hanis in Medina County, north of Uvalde in Uvalde County, and southwest of Pearsall in Frio County. General supervision of the project was provided by Dr. Thomas R. Hester, Director, and Jack D. Eaton, Associate Director, of the CAR-UTSA. The project was carried out by Augustine and Elizabeth Frkuska, Center staff archaeologists. The survey methods were based upon the guidelines for site survey presented in Field Methods in Archaeology (Hester, Heizer, and Graham 1975:13-36). Any artifacts observed along the proposed routes were recorded as to their location and association with their environment. The areas surveyed were restricted in width since the majority of the proposed distribution lines followed public road right-of-ways, including areas just inside private property fronting along the road. Holes are to be excavated at predetermined intervals to set the utility poles, and in certain areas along the route there are to be anchor pins for the distribution lines. In addition, electrical system substations are to be constructed. This would involve the landscaping and fencing of designated areas along each of the proposed lines. All field information was recorded on standard forms. Photographs were taken of distribution line routes and potential sites. Selected artifacts were collected from the surface of sites and stored in paper bags labeled with a temporary site number. The site was then located and marked on a 7.51 United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map. All artifacts and collected data were processed according to standard archaeological procedures. Interpretations presented in this report are based on information obtained from the field survey and literature research. The information is presented under the names given to the distribution line routes and substations by the Medina Electric Cooperative, Inc. The areas surveyed for the Medina Electric Cooperative, Inc., are encompassed by the south-central Texas region. Five major chronological periods are recognized for this area of Texas. These periods are: (1) Paleo-Indian (ca. 9200 B.C.-6000 B.C.), (2) Pre-Archaic (ca. 6000 B.C.-3500 B.C.), (3) Archaic (ca. 3500 B.C.-A.D. 1000), (4) Late Prehistoric (ca. A.D. 1000-Historic contact), and (5) Historic (the period of historic European intrusion). The prehistoric occupation in south-central Texas is represented by all chronological periods. The sections describing the previous archaeology for each of the surveyed areas refer to this chronology.



archaeological investigation, archaeology, Texas archaeology, Uvalde County, Medina County, Frio County