Influence of elastic band resistance training on 3-point basketball shot performance in youth athletes
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that free form Thera-Band RTM elastic band resistance training improves performance of the three point basketball shot in children age 9 to 11 years. Twenty subjects, mean age = 9.5 (+/- 0.93 years), were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10), Non-Elastic Training (control) and Elastic-Resistance Training (experimental). The participants were physically active, but were not previously trained in using free weights, machine strength equipment, or elastic resistance band training methods. All participants were asked not to change their daily activity or exercise routines but were asked to exclude all resistance training through the period of the study. All participants were screened for range of motion in the performance of a non-loaded squat exercises. Vertical jump height and absolute distance achieved from behind the three point arc (6.02 meters from the arch to the rim) was assessed before and after the experimental intervention. Both training groups exercised twice per week over a six week period consisting of 12 exercise sessions, with both groups performing the same whole-body dynamic warm-up at the beginning of each training session. In addition to the dynamic warm-up, participants in the Elastic-Resistance Training groups also performed four sets of eight repetitions in the squat-to-overhead-press exercise using Thera-BandRTM elastic bands. Data were assessed using a two by two ANOVA between groups (experimental vs. control) with repeated measures across time (pretest vs. posttest). Vertical jump for the control and experimental groups averaged (mean +/- SD) 0.27m +/- 0.08m and 0.26m +/- 0.04m for the pretest, 0.27m +/- 0.08m and 0.3m +/- 0.08m for the posttest (all p > 0.05). Absolute shooting distance achieved for the control and experimental groups averaged (mean +/- SD) 5.9m +/- 0.6m for the pretest and 6.6 +/- 0.8m for the posttest; these increases were statistically significant for time (p < 0.01 pooled across groups), but not between groups (p = 0.2). Results of this study demonstrate that six weeks of supervised whole-body calisthenics with or without elastic band resistance does not improve vertical jump height, but does improve three point basketball shot performance in 9 to 11 year old athletes. Therefore, addition of the Thera-BandRTM elastic band resistance training to a standard supervised calisthenics program is innocuous. The hypothesis that elastic band exercise improved performance in the three point shot was not supported.