Orthopedic implant coating for improved osseointegration and prevention of biofilm formation
Total joint replacements are becoming more common in the field of orthopedics. Approximately 10-12% of these implants suffer from early implant failure due to aseptic loosening or infection. The purpose of this study was to create a biocompatible polymeric coating for orthopedic implants that inhibits the formation of biofilm and increases the bioactivity of the implant by way of controlled drug delivery. In order to address this goal, a double-layered polymeric coating made of dextran and chitosan was first developed. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were then incorporated into the coating to act as antimicrobial agents. Finally, in order to make the coating more osteogenic, the use of lactoferrin and xylitol were explored, two compounds known for their positive effects on bone. It was determined that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in the coating reduced biofilm formation over time without compromising bone cell viability. Lactoferrin and xylitol were also shown to be effective compounds in enhancing pre-osteoblast cell maturation. This was possible in a double-layered polymeric coating composed of two polymers known for their antimicrobial activity and effects on bone cell proliferation and maturation.