Archaeological survey of three land parcels and shovel testing of four sites at Camp Bowie, Brown County, Texas
Pedestrian survey and shovel testing of three land parcels and shovel testing of four previously identified archaeological sites in Camp Bowie, Brown County, Texas, was performed by the Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) at The University of Texas at San Antonio during October and November of 2001. This work, conducted under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 2310, was undertaken as a result of recommendations from Wormser and Sullo-Prewitt (2001) following their archaeological survey and site recording efforts. Three areas of Camp Bowie were surveyed and shovel tested. Parcel 1 is 74 acres (30 ha) in extent and 46 shovel tests were excavated in this area. One new site (41BR522) was identified at the northern margin of this survey area. 41BR522 is a small burned rock midden site. Seven additional shovel tests were excavated on this site. One Late Prehistoric projectile point fragment was recovered during shovel testing of 41BR522. Excluding the units on 41BR522, only three shovel tests within Parcel 1 contained subsurface lithics. All of these artifacts represent isolated finds (IF). One additional shovel test had a single animal bone that may not be cultural and is considered an IF. Parcel 2 covers 64 acres (26 ha) and 33 shovel tests were placed within this area. None of the shovel tests in Parcel 2 produced any subsurface archaeological material. Parcel 3 is 62 acres (25 ha) and 43 shovel tests were excavated in this part of Camp Bowie. One shovel test produced two heat-fractured lithics that are not unambiguously cultural in origin. 41BR522 is recommended for additional testing to determine its State Archeological Landmark (SAL) and National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) eligibility. None of the other areas of the three survey parcels contain cultural resources that are considered SAL or NRHP eligible. In the event of deep or extensive excavation of the alluvial soils in Parcel 1, archaeological monitoring is recommended to identify any potential impacts to resources below the 60 cm depth investigated by this project. Normal military use of this area may proceed without further consultation with the Texas Historical Commission (THC). In response to recommendations by Wormser and Sullo-Prewitt (2001), four previously recorded archaeological sites were revisited (41BR248, 41BR467, 41BR469, and 41BR471). Site 41BR248 could not be relocated. No surface or subsurface artifacts were identified at the plotted site location. Four shovel tests were excavated within the identified site location, but no cultural materials were encountered. Either naturally fractured local chert has been mistaken for cultural artifacts or the plotted location is not correct for 41BR248. Four shovel tests were excavated in 41BR467, a low-density lithic scatter. No artifacts were recovered from the shovel tests. Four bifaces and two cores were recovered from the surface of this site. Six shovel tests were placed on 41BR469, a low-density lithic scatter. One shovel test contained a single subsurface flake. 41BR471 is a small, relatively dense lithic scatter. Four shovel tests were excavated on this site. One shovel test contained a single lithic. There were no other indications of subsurface archaeological deposits. Surface artifacts included one Late Prehistoric projectile point. Surface visibility at these sites exceeded 30 percent and the number of shovel tests is considered sufficient to determine the significance of these cultural resources. 41BR248 could not be identified at its previously plotted location, if this site still exists â€“it requires relocation and testing. Additional examination is recommended for 41BR471. Following re-examination and testing, no further characterization of 41BR467 and 41BR469 is considered necessary. With the exception of 41BR471 and 41BR248, no further archaeological work is recommended and scheduled use of this area may proceed without further consultation with THC. Two additional sites, re-examined in February of 2001 to determine their SAL and NRHP eligibility, are also included in this report (41BR392 and 41BR523). Two shovel tests were excavated in 41BR392 to examine a prehistoric burned rock midden at this previously identified historic site. One Middle Archaic Bulverde point was recovered from the surface of 41BR392. 41BR523 is a World War II-era live grenade court. This site was described but no shovel tests were considered necessary. Further testing is recommended for the burned rock midden component of 41BR392. No additional archaeological work is considered necessary on 41BR523 and that location is recommended for archaeological clearance. Recommendations from this project are that the SAL and NRHP eligibility of 41BR392, 41BR471, and 41BR522 is unclear in the absence of additional testing efforts. These sites should be protected and avoided until additional examination can determine their SAL and NRHP eligibility status. 41BR248 could not be located with the information currently available. Additional evaluation of this site is still required in relation to previous recommendations by THC. Sites 41BR467, 41BR469, and 41BR523 are considered ineligible as SAL or NRHP properties and no additional archaeological characterization is considered necessary. The three survey parcels examined during this survey and testing project do not contain any significant cultural properties (other than 41BR522 at the periphery of Parcel 1) detectable through shovel testing methods. Parcel 1 is located on deep alluvial soil that could contain deeply buried archaeological deposits. Archaeological monitoring is recommended to identify any potential cultural resources below the 60 cm depth investigated in Parcel 1 if significant excavation of this area is planned. Normal military use of these areas may proceed without further consultation with THC.