A History of the Barrio de Laredo, 1741-1860




McKenzie, Clinton M. M.

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Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio


The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) was contracted by Adams Environmental, Inc. (AEI) and CPS Energy (CPS) to provide this archival review as alternative compliance with the Texas Antiquities Code, administered by the Texas Historical Commission Archaeology Division (THC) and Chapter 37 of the Municipal Code of the City of San Antonio, administered by the City of San Antonio’s Office of Historic Preservation (OHP). This alternative compliance is mitigation of a violation of the preceding statutory requirements in the public right-of-way along Flores and El Paso Street next to San Pedro Creek. That violation consisted of unauthorized excavation by the contractor working for CPS Energy. This occurred within an area specifically flagged for archaeological compliance by CPS Energy, the THC, and OHP under Texas Antiquities Permit (TAP) Number 9700. Cynthia Muñoz served as the Principal Investigator and Clinton McKenzie served as the Project Archaeologist. All three reviewing parties proposed that the UTSA-CAR provide a brief report on the affected area in a separate document (McKenzie 2023). Further mitigation was required for the violation and a study of the wider area of the historic Barrio de Laredo, also referred to as Laredito, was proposed as suitable mitigation. The production of an archival-historical report on the Barrio de Laredo provides CPS Energy, THC, OHP, and others with published research on an area often impacted by development and currently lacking holistic archival research.

This report will inform and support the review of impacts within the historic Barrio de Laredo area through an examination of land ownership undertaken from the first recorded grant in 1741 to 1860. The 1860 limitation is a direct result of the time and budgetary constraints incumbent on original research as well as the fact that post-1860 land assembly data is more readily available to researchers. Further, 1860 represents a turning point for the Laredito area because of changing land uses and the fractionation of originally large parcels into smaller holdings. The report also examines the location of presidial and municipal improvements constructed in the Barrio de Laredo during the Spanish Colonial period, including the first Black Powder Magazine, and an associated guard tower, and the presence of a community corral and municipal slaughterhouse (rastro). The report also traces the existence of a Spanish Colonial acequia system that transited north-to-south through the blocks on the east side of Laredo Street. Lastly, population studies and the demographics of the Barrio de Laredo are examined through analysis and comparison of the 1809 and 1820 census documents. The report includes nine appendices of supporting documents and data:

Appendix A: Extant Chain of Title for the Project Area

Appendix B: Revised Leal Index of Neighborhood of Laredo Street Properties

Appendix C: First Page of the 1809 Census of the Barrio de Laredo

Appendix D: 1809 Barrio de Laredo Census Household Data

Appendix E: 1809 Barrio de Laredo Census Heads of Households and Reported Property

Appendix F: 1809 Barrio de Laredo Census Prior Place of Residence and Date of Arrival

Appendix G: 1820 Barrio de Laredo Census Household Data

Appendix H: 1817 List of Confiscated Rebel Property

Appendix I: (Copy) Letter Report Documenting Compliance Failure and Providing Archival Historical Report in Lieu of Archaeological Monitoring Associated with CPS Energy Electrical and Gas Utility Work on Guadalupe St. Near Flores St. in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio. Letter Report, No. 173. McKenzie, C. M. M., October 2023.



San Antonio, Barrio de Laredo, barrios in San Antonio


McKenzie, C.M.M. (2024). A History of the Barrio de Laredo, 1741-1860. Special Report, No. 38. Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio.