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    Report to Consejo de Arqueología Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia: An Archaeological Investigation of Late Archaic Cerros de Trincheras Sites in Chihuahua, Mexico, Results of the 1998 Investigations
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1999-04-26) Hard, Robert J.; Roney, John R.
    Cerro Juanaqueña is a large cerro de trincheras located in northwestern Chihuahua, in the municipio of Janos. The site was built over 3000 years ago on the summit and slopes of a 140 meter high basalt hill which overlooks the floodplain of the Rio Casas Grandes and its major tributary, the Rio San Pedro. Large constructed terraces cover an area of about 8 hectares, with over 8 kilometers of terrace wall and 108 stone circles (see Figure 1). A large number of stone artifacts are found with these features, and excavations have revealed rich midden deposits with abundant bone and carbonized plant material (Hard and Roney 1998a). In our 1998 informe (reporting results of our 1997 field season) we described test excavations in three terraces and four stone circles, as well as mapping activities, collection of surface materials, geomorphic investigations of the Rio Casas Grandes floodplain, documentation of rock art, and reconnaissance at other similar sites. This informe summarizes the investigations undertaken at Cerro Juanaqueña and other related sites under the oficio No. C.A. 401–36/560 (22 de mayo de 1998) authorized by the Consejo de Antropología. The project was funded in 1997 by National Science Foundation (NSF) SBR-97086210 and in 1998 by NSFSBR-9809839. Our primary objective during 1998 was to recover charcoal for radiocarbon dating and macrobotanical analysis, as well as to expand the sample of faunal materials. Our strategy was to select 10 terraces on Cerro Juanaqueña for test excavation. Descriptions of these excavations are in Appendix 1. We continued geomorphological investigations of floodplain deposits, which were begun in 1997, as well as in-field analysis of ground stone and limited surface collection. With assistance from the INAH Centro Regional in Chihuahua we also arranged to have large-scale aerial photographs taken of Cerro Juanaqueña and four other nearby cerros de trincheras, as well as a part of the floodplain near Cerro Juanaqueña. Analytical activities continued, and we are able to report two additional radiocarbon dates on materials excavated in 1997, as well as preliminary results of the geomorphological study, pollen analysis, and lithic analysis. In 1998 we expanded our project to include limited work at two other cerro de trincheras in the Rio Casas Grandes drainage, Cerro los Torres and Cerro Vidal (see Figure 2). Both of these sites were originally registered and mapped during Minnis and Whalen’s project in 1996. Cerro los Torres is located about 20km north of Nuevo Casas Grandes. The site consists of over 2 km of terrace walls and perhaps 20 rockrings built on an 85 m high isolated hill overlooking the floodplain. Although some pottery and a few arrow points have been found on Cerro los Torres, it also has dart points and other artifacts which are reminiscent of those at Cerro Juanaqueña. The terraces and stone circles are also similar to the features on Cerro Juanaqueña. For these reasons we suspect that the site was originally built and used during the Late Archaic period. This site and our test excavations there are described more fully in Appendix 2. Cerro Vidal is a third cerro de trincheras located adjacent to the Rio Piedras Verdes 6 kilometers south of Colonia Juarez in the municipio of Casas Grandes Viejo. This site is located on an 120 m high hill. It includes approximately 2.3 km of terrace wall and about 40 rock rings. No pottery has been found, and although there are arrow points on the site, its overall similarity to Cerro Juanaqueña in terms of artifacts and form of its features suggests that it also dates to Late Archaic times. Owing to newly acquired data, this last suggestion has been reconsidered. This site and our test excavations there are described in Appendix 3.
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    Some Aspects of Late Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archaeology in Southern Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1975) Hester, Thomas R.; Hill, T. C., Jr.
    This paper is concerned with the last several hundred years of the prehistoric period in the southern part of Texas. The earlier human occupation of this region, extending back perhaps 11,000 years, has been summarized elsewhere (Hester 1971a). The Paleo-Indian period is represented by scattered surface finds of Clovis and Folsom projectile points, and by a variety of "Late Paleo-Indian" point styles, such as Plainview, Scottsbluff, Golondrina, Angostura, and Meserve. The following Archaic era is poorly defined, although there are numerous surface sites and an abundance of chipped stone artifacts (cf. Weir 1956; Hester, White and White 1969). The late prehistoric era in southern Taxas shares many characteristics with contemporary cultural developments in other parts of Texas, during a period which Suhm, Krieger and Jelks (1954: 20) have termed "Neo-American". New traits which were introduced into some parts of Texas at this time include the bow and arrow, ceramics, and the practice of agriculture; present evidence indicates that of these, only agriculture was absent from southern Texas.
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    Moccasin Confluence: Occupation and Settlement in the Lower Fredericksburg Basin of the Edwards Plateau
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1986) Gunn, Joel D.; Kerr, Anne C.
    During the summer of 1982 the eastern half of Lyndon B. Johnson State Historical Park was surveyed and sites tested. The work was sponsored by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and performed by Center for Archaeological Research and the Division of Behavioral and Cultural Sciences, The University of Texas at San Antonio. The Principal Investigator was Joel D. Gunn. The field work was conducted by the field course in archaeology from the University of Texas at San Antonio. Members (listed in the Acknowledgments section) of the Anthropology Laboratory class assisted the Principal Investigator with laboratory analysis. Most of the sites were shallow or deflated and of limited information value except for their location in the overall settlement pattern. Excavation of 41 GL 21, Hop Hill (Gunn and Mahula 1977a), was completed. An old stream channel was found in the bedrock under the site. It was filled with occupation debris from the Late Archaic. The site may have been used as an overlook to an adjacent ford in the Pedernales River. At the confluence of the Pedernales River and Williams Creek (Moccasin Confluence) at the east end of the park a very important site was found. Moccasin Confluence consists of two segments divided by Williams Creek. The west segment (41 BC 71) is a deeply stratified alluvial site with a Holocene sequence. Whether the sequence is continuous through the Holocene remains to be determined. The levels are extremely thick in the Middle and Early Holocene. The location, at three sources of varying sediments, indicates that the site could be a very sensitive geological barometer of Holocene climate, a hypothesis that seems to have merit based on analysis of sediment grain size composition and IPF analysis of sediment chemistry. The site is very rich in chronological diagnostics and is of great potential for studying environmental and cultural process in the Edwards Plateau region. Analysis of artifact wear patterns, points, flake size and frequencies, and mollusks indicates the site was inhabited over long periods of time, sometimes with a fair amount of intensity. Nomads apparently visited the site at the beginning of each cultural period and eventually settled there until their culture was disrupted. The site is recommended for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The site (41 BC 63) on the east bank of Williams Creek outside the park, considered to be the eastern segment of Moccasin Confluence, was tested enough to show that it has a dense burned rock midden. It is assumed to represent a shift of occupation locus to the east side of the creek during the Middle Archaic.
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    Eagle Hill: A Late Quaternary Upland Site in Western Louisiana
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1982) Gunn, Joel D.; Brown, David O.
    The Eagle Hill II site (16 SA 50) is located in a rolling upland area of western Louisiana known as Peason Ridge. Because of its location in a saddle, the locale accumulated colluvial sediments during certain intervals of the late Quaternary; in addition, it served as a habitation area for prehistoric groups. Sediments were preserved from the early and late Holocene, apparently reflecting the relatively cooler and moister conditions of those periods that were conducive to erosion-preventing vegetation. The site was excavated in a manner to provide both vertical and horizontal information on site occupation at relatively high resolution. A sampling design was used to target critical occupation levels for careful excavation of occupational floors. Floors were stratified based on analysis of lithics from test excavations. On targeted occupation floors, artifacts were provenienced to the centimeter. A battery of information was collected on the sediments to allow definition of fire hearths, activity areas, etc. The early Holocene levels (10,000-7000 B.P.) began with a Folsom-related occupation and ended with an Early Archaic technology. Analysis of lithic wear patterns, tool morphology, and fire-related attributes clearly defined activity areas. Similar success was achieved with the late Holocene (A.D. 6000-present) ceramic levels. X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation were used to examine lithic source areas and mineral content of the soils in the occupation floors. The rhythm of occupation at Eagle Hill II can be explained as a product of demographic fluctuations in the adjacent Sabine and Red River valleys, response of those populations to Holocene climatic change, and response of sediments and erosion to the same climatic variations.
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    The Texas Archaic: A Symposium
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1976)
    The papers published in this volume were presented at a symposium entitled "The Texas Archaic" held in San Antonio on November 2, 1975, during the annual meeting of the Texas Archeological Society. Of those papers delivered during this symposium, only one, "Archaic Diets and Food Economies" (by V. M. Bryant, Jr.), is not presently available for publication. The present format has been utilized to insure rapid and economical publication of the symposium papers. The papers are primarily status reports, describing the current state of regional knowledge of the Archaic or dealing with specific aspects of the Archaic lifeway. As such, they are primarily designed to stimulate discussion and future research. They provide professional archaeologists interested in Texas archaeology with data and interpretations more recent than those contained in the Introductory Handbook on Texas Archeology (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks 1954) and the subsequent review of Texas archaeology published as volume 29 of the Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society (1958). It is also hoped that these papers will help to introduce the growing number of amateur archaeologists in Texas to the many problems of the State's prehistory still remaining to be solved. It will take the concerted and collaborative efforts of both professionals and amateurs to come up with the solutions. Thomas R. Hester, Director, Center for Archaeological Research
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    Baker Cave, Val Verde County, Texas: The 1976 Excavations
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1983) Chadderdon, Mary Frances
    Excavations, in summer 1976, have provided new data on the ancient human occupations at Baker Cave, Val Verde County, Texas. One objective of the research program was to obtain further information on habitation at the site during Late Paleo-Indian times. Radiocarbon dates of 7000 B.C. can be linked to this period and are attributed to the Golondrina complex. This cultural pattern is represented by a deposit containing chipped stone artifacts and other cultural materials. The most important discovery was a cooking pit that yielded an abundance of faunal and floral remains. Interpretation of the paleoenvironmental data suggests a climatic regime somewhat more moist than that of today. Overlying the Golondrina complex materials were strata ranging in age from 6000-3000 B.C. Chipped stone projectile points included triangular and stemmed forms distinctive of the early phases of the lower Pecos River Archaic. Paleoenvironmental data indicate a drying of the climate and the appearance of typical desert plants of the region. These deposits were capped by an occupation zone with Pandale points, diagnostic of the Early Archaic in the region. A second objective of the 1976 investigations involved horizontal strip-ping of an area with stratified Middle Archaic to Late Prehistoric occupations. These excavations provided data on the spatial distribution of activity areas and on the procurement and processing of plants used for raw materials and for food.
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    The Lithic Articfacts of Indians at the Spanish Colonial Missions, San Antonio, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1979) Fox, Daniel E.
    Prior to 1962, no Spanish Colonial mission in Texas had been investigated by trained archaeologists (Tunnell and Newcomb 1969:;ii). Since then, a number of Texas mission sites have received the attention of archaeologists and ethnohistorians, and in recent years the potential for the study of culture process through the interdisciplinary efforts of archaeological and ethnohistorical research has been recognized (Campbell 1973, 1975). Disparities between the methodological assumptions of ethnohistorians and archaeologists, however, have tended to reduce effective cooperation of the disciplines. Although their ultimate objective is to study and explain the processes of culture change, prehistoric archaeologists must first construct local and regional culture sequences and correlate late prehistoric culture units with the historic ethnic groups recorded by the first European travelers and explorers. Ethnohistorians, on the other hand, are attracted more to those bodies of data which are more complete, more informative, and more readily available than the earliest accounts. Confronted with a complicated, unsys-tematized assortment of ethnographic data, it is understandable that archaeologists, as amateur ethnohistorians, tend to make little more than minimal or irreffective use of ethnohistorical material (Campbell 1973:4). The development of a systematized ethnohistory for Texas researchers will, no doubt, take time. Meanwhile, recovery of threatened archaeological material and preservation, where possible, must keep pace with increasing deterioration and destruction of Spanish Colonial sites, especially mission sites which appear to have the earliest known culture assemblage that can be attributed confidently to specific historic Indian groups (Tunnell and Newcomb 1969:iii). Stemming from this, a major problem for current archaeological research in Texas concerns the formulation of techniques which will allow effective utilization of presently available cultural data from mission site investigations in ongoing problem-oriented ethnohistorical/archaeological research. The purpose of this study is to define and morphologically describe an assem-blage of lithic cultural material thought to be representative of a group of Spanish Colonial mission sites in Texas.
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    Papers on the Prehistory of Northeastern Mexico and Adjacent Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1980)
    The papers bound in this volume are selected from a series of presentations given in the sessions on archaeology at the meeting held in Monterrey, May 23-26, 1975, to celebrate the opening of the northeastern Mexico regional branch of the Instituto Nacional de Anthropología e Historia.* The theme of that conference was "The Archaeology and History of Northeastern Mexico and Texas." The contributions on both archaeology and history were given in the newly renovated and refurbished Monterrey Railroad Station, which now bears the name Casa de Cultura. The selection of this antique structure for INAWs regional museum symbolizes an awakened interest in the past of northeastern Mexico, and represents an effort to make that past relevant to the present as well as the future. This is as it should be, and is what unites anthropologists and historians in their efforts to make history and prehistory comprehensible.
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    Papers on the Archaeology of the Texas Coast
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1980)
    The papers published in this volume represent contributions from professional archaeologists, avocational archaeologists, and students. Many aspects of coastal archaeology are unknown, and there is a great need for data-oriented papers, site reports, reviews of specific aboriginal technologies, and for other papers dealing with certain facets of the prehistoric and historic archaeology of the coastal zone. We hope that this volume will be followed by others also concerned with the archaeology of the Texas coast and adjacent or related coastal areas. We urge you to send papers or ideas for contributions to such future volumes to the Center. The cover for this volume was designed by Kathy Bareiss of the Center. The manuscript was typed by Elizabeth Goode, Mary Lou Ellis, and Frieda Barefield.
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    Excavations at the Alamo Shrine (Mission San Antonio de Valero)
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1980) Eaton, Jack D.
    In March 1977, excavations were conducted in front of Alamo Shrine where flagstone paving was being replaced by the City of San Antonio. The subsurface investigations sampled and described the soil stratigraphy which has accumulated through 2.5 centuries of occupation. The distinctive soil levels contained datable cultural materials which relate to some of the major events which took place from the earliest settlement of Mission San Antonio de Valero through subsequent periods of Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo-Texan occupations. The artifact collections have provided additional information on the material culture of the different ethnic and cultural groups to occupy the Alamo. During the excavations, a section of a trench was found in which a palisade had been set prior to the battle of 1836. The trench backfill contained numerous battle artifacts. Also a section of the old street curb which once extended along the front of the Alamo was uncovered. In addition, excavations in front of Alamo Shrine have provided an examination of the old church foundation and footing. This was found to be in good condition.
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    Background to the Archaeology of Chaparrosa Ranch, Southern Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1978) Hester, Thomas R.
    The Chaparrosa Ranch, located in Zavala County, southern Texas constitutes an ideal area for long-range archaeological research. Flowing through the ranch are Chaparrosa and Turkey Creeks, two major tributaries in the Nueces River system. These creeks and subsidiary drainages have cut pronounced valleys and terrace systems. As of this writing, nearly 200 prehistoric and historic archaeological sites have been documented in these valleys and in the adjacent uplands. Late in the summer of 1969, Mr. Wayne Hamilton (former business manager for the ranch) showed me several of the known sites at Chaparrosa Ranch. I was impressed by the potential for long-term studies which would hopefully con-trtbute to a better understanding of southern Texas prehistory. In early 1970, I prepared a research plan, which was submitted to the ranch owner, Mr. Belton K. Johnson, and to the Texas State Historical Committee (now the Texas Historical Commission). Mr. Johnson approved of the planned research and the Texas State Historical Committee, through Mr. Curtis Tunnell (state archaeologist), provided funding for the first season's work. Additional funding came from the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley, and from the American Philosophical Society (Grant No. 6313, Penrose Fund). Logistical support was made available by the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, the Texas Archeological Salvage Project and the Texas Memorial Museum. Fieldwork was conducted in August and September 1970, and the results are found in the first paper in this volume. Since that initial season in 1970, two other major field sessions, and several brief investigations, have been conducted at the ranch. The 1974 and the 1975 sessions of the graduate Field Course in Archaeology of The University of Texas at San Antonio were held there. During the six-week session in summer 1974, there were extensive excavations at 41 ZV 83 (Mariposa Site), and the results of this work have been compiled by John Montgomery in his Master's Thesis at Texas Tech University. His monograph appears as Volume 2 in the Center's Chaparrosa Ranch series. A preliminary statement on the 1974 fieldwork is reprinted in the present volume. An initial account of the six weeks of research carried out in 1975 is also presented here. This program of investigations has included site survey, controlled surface collecting, testing, excavation and a series of other research endeavors. The studies have resulted in a mass of data, in terms of artifacts, notes and the results of special analyses. With this volume, in which a variety of background information is provided, we are initiating the final publication of the materials from Chaparrosa Ranch. It will take several volumes for the publication program to be completed. Some artifacts still await analysis, and there are data yet to be interpreted, but much has already been accomplished and drafts of a number of reports have been prepared. These await editing and revision before they can be published. Vegetational studies, radiocarbon results, faunal analyses and related research data must also be collated and integrated into forthcoming publications. I am grateful to many people for assistance during the project, and I trust that all have been acknowledged in the various papers reprinted here. I want to again extend my appreciation to Mr. Belton K. Johnson, owner of the Chaparrosa Ranch, for his cooperation and support, and to Mr. Wayne Hamilton for his sustained interest in, and encouragement of, our research. Thomas R. Hester, November 1978
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    Maya Lithic Studies: Papers from the 1976 Belize Field Symposium
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1976)
    As a result of intensified archaeological activity in northern Belize, and specifically the work of the joint British Museum-Cambridge University research project (directed by Norman Hammond), a variety of new data have been obtained on the prehistory of this region. Of the many sites that have been mapped, tested, or otherwise investigated in the past few years, one stands out as a major center of ancient Maya lithic technology. This is the site of Calha, located south of Orange Walk Town, along the highway between that town and Belize City. Personnel of the British Museum-Cambridge University Corozal Project began limited research at the site in 1973. As a result of efforts then and since, parts of this extensive site have been mapped, some stratigraphic tests have been made, and controlled surface sampling and lithic analysis have been initiated (the latter through the hard work of Richard Wilk). These investigations, although preliminary in nature, were sufficient to indicate that Colha had indeed been a significant center of stone tool production for the Maya, from Middle Preclassic through Postclassic times. Conversations about the site, among Hammond, T. R. Hester, H. J. Shafer and R. Wilk during 1975, led to the formulation of plans to hold a "field symposium" in Belize, in which a number of persons interested in Meso-american lithic studies could be brought together. The purpose of the symposium was to be two-fold: (1) to make an on-site inspection of Calha, to view the chert-working loci and vast exposures of workshop debris, and (2) to present a series of papers, followed by extensive discussion, in which the status of lithic research in the region could be assessed. Through the sponsorship of the Center for Archaeological Research at The University of Texas at San Antonio, the field symposium was held in Orange Walk Town, Belize during the period of April 16-20, 1976. The program was organized by Norman Hammond, a Faculty Associate of the Center, in collaboration with Thomas Hester, the Center's director. Formal sessions were held at the Hotel Nuevo Mi Amor, and we are grateful to the management (especially Sr. E. Urbina) for their assistance in providing a meeting room and appropriate refreshments. The participants included Don E. Crabtree, Norman Hammond, Thomas R. Hester, Jay K. Johnson, Joseph W. Michels, Arlene V. Miller, Hattula Moholy-Nagy, Harry J. Shafer, Payson D. Sheets and Richard Wilk; Irwin Rovner presented a paper in absentia. Each of the participants presented a formal paper, revised versions of which are published in this volume.* During the three days of the symposium, part of each day was occupied by the presentation of papers, while the remainder was spent in visits to archaeological sites in the vicinity. Greatest emphasis was placed on a full day inspection of the lithic workshops of Colha. While at the site, the symposium participants were able to examine a number of individual workshops and the wide variety of lithic debris exposed at these. Impromptu replicative experimentation utilizing nodules of the local chert exposed in a streambed was carried out by Crabtree, Sheets and Shafer. The participants also visited the ceremonial center of the site, and spent a good deal of time examining the extensive collection of stone tools belonging to John and Herbert Masson, the owners of the property on which Colha is situated. The Masson family was extremely gracious to the conference participants and we are very grateful for their hospitality, including a magnificent lunch. Apart from the day spent at Colha, other sites visited during the con-ference included the Richmond Hill locality (about which the participants were collectively skeptical; see Miller's paper in this volume) and the Classic major center of El Pozito being excavated by the University of the Americas. An obsidian workshop had been discovered at El Pozito just prior to our visit and the materials from this workshop were examined. A paper has been written by Mary Neivens and David Libbey describing the workshop, and it is published in this volume. The Preclassic site of Cuello, being excavated by Hammond, was also visited, and lithics dating to 1000-2000 B.C. were examined. The field symposium ended with a lengthy discussion of the status of Maya lithic studies, suggestions for a more unified approach and a more con-sistent terminology, and the identification of areas of knowledge, and similarly, areas of ignorance in the field of Maya lithics in terms of time, space, materials and technology. It was also agreed that the site of Colha deserved long-term, detailed research. Crabtree described the site as "one of the most important lithic sites in the world", and it was commonly felt by participants in the field symposium that research at this site would yield a wide variety of new insights into Maya lithic technology. A proposal for long-term research at Colha was being prepared at the time this volume went to press. There are many to whom we are grateful for support and aid during and after the field symposium. We again thank Sr. Urbina of the Hotel Nuevo Mi Amor, and the Masson family, owners of the site of Colha. His Excellency the Governor of Belize, Mr. Richard Posnett, opened the con-ference and attended the session at Colha. Mr. Joseph Palacio, Archae-ological Commissioner for the Government of Belize, provided the assistance of his office and welcomed participants. Belize Sugar Industries made available the swimming pool at Tower Hill, near Orange Walk Town, through the courtesy of Mr. F. J. C. Curtis, O.B.E. Norman Hammond's field crew at Cuello, with the generous aid of Harold B. Haley, provided the con-ference participants with a party on the last evening. Kathy McCauley, secretary for the Center for Archaeological Research, and Jeanette Burch, typist for the Center, helped in report preparation. Persons attending the conference in addition to those participants listed above included: Evelyn Crabtree, Gabrielle Michels, Mary Neivens, Juliette J. Cartwright, Peter R. A. Barron, Ginny Schneider, Harold B. Haley, Elizabeth Graham and Duncan Pring. *Two papers dealing with Belize lithics have been submitted to the editors since the symposium. These contributions, by Ray Sidrys and John Andresen, are published here.
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    Hop Hill: Culture and Climatic Change in Central Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1977) Gunn, Joel D.; Mahula, Royce A.
    During June and July, 1976, the Center for Archaeological Research carried out archaeological investigations at the Hop Hill site (41 GL 21). This research was conducted at the request of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and was funded through an Interagency Contract (IAC-76-77-1162). Field work was directed by Dr. Joel Gunn, utilizing Center staff members and participants in the UTSA Division of Social Sciences 1976 Field Course in Archaeology. This monograph presents the results of the field work and the multidisciplinary research activities that followed. Thomas R. Hester, Director, Center for Archaeological Research
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    A Guide to Ceramics from Spanish Colonial Sites in Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2008) Fox, Anne A.; Ulrich, Kristi M.
    AUTHORS’ PREFACE: The descriptions of ceramic types in this publication are compiled primarily as an aid to archaeologists working at missions and presidios in Texas, though it will also help those investigating town and ranch sites occupied during the eighteenth century. It was written with the help of numerous site reports done by archaeologists throughout the twentieth century who have valiantly wrestled with the problems of type identification and dating. The senior author has had the privilege of working with many of them throughout this period, and has developed an intense interest in ceramic identification. Additional help has come from researchers who have created and refined the ceramic typology over the years, from John Goggin in 1968 to Kathleen Deagan in 1987. The research of Florence and Robert Lister (1974, 1975, 1976a, 1976b, 1978) has contributed priceless information on the identification and origins of majolicas. Researchers working on Spanish colonial sites in Texas become aware that there are ceramic types that Goggin or Deagan do not describe. This is partly because the authors did not have access to Texas collections (Goggin 1968:81–83) or were limiting their typologies to the Caribbean area (Deagan 1987). At first, we avoided the problem by designating types with no known names as “Type A, Type B, etc.” The senior author has taken her courage in both hands and started to use descriptive names, especially for the coarse wares that have generally been ignored (see Fox 2002:203–219; Gilmore 1974:55–69) as well as the majolicas found on Texas sites that existed into the nineteenth century. This has also increased our appreciation of the work of archaeologists working in California and Arizona, whose Spanish sites lingered even later than those in Texas did. They also have been looking for ways to refer to the later types (see Barnes 1980:192–110; Barnes and May 1972; Cohen-Williams 1992:119–130; May 1975). The University of Texas at San Antonio Center for Archaeological Research (UTSA-CAR) is the curation facility for a large number of collections from Spanish colonial sites in Texas, which has facilitated the study necessary for producing this manuscript. The illustrations have drawn examples from these collections, plus a generous contribution from the large ceramic collection at Presidio La Bahía at Goliad. Much of the problem of identification is due to the small size of sherds recovered from most sites and, therefore, the difficulty of identifying types. Hopefully, these illustrations will help to fit a small sherd into the overall pattern of a type and from this to recognize comparative dating of deposits. This is a step in the development of Texas archaeologists’ ability to recognize and date ceramics from Spanish colonial sites. It is does not pretend to be the “be all and end all” on this subject. While primarily intended to be a manual for archaeologists working at Colonial sites in Texas, this publication will also serve as an introduction to Spanish colonial ceramics for those just beginning in historic archaeology in the state.
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    Papers on Paleo-Indian Archaeology in Texas: I
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1976) Hester, Thomas R.; Birmingham, William W.
    This third number in the Center's Special Report series contains two papers dealing with Paleo-Indian archaeology in Texas. Two additional papers dealing with this topic have recently been submitted. One involves a detailed review of the Plainview-Golondrina typological problem (authored by Thomas C. Kelly), and a second (written by Jules A. Jaquier), describing the bifacial implements from the Johnston-Heller site (41 VT 15; see this volume). We intend to publish these papers in the Special Report series at a later date, once editing and illustration preparation have been completed. Thomas R. Hester, Director
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    Una Investigación Arqueológica de los Sitios Cerros con Trincheras del Arcaico Tardío en Chihuahua, México
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2001-10) Hard, Robert J.; Zapata, José E.; Roney, John R.
    Este informe resume las investigaciones de campo de 2000 en el Cerro Juanaqueña y otros sitios relacionados, y también se proporciona los más recientes resultados analíticos. Estos trabajos fueron autorizados en el 2000 por medio de los oficios CA401-36/0669 y CA 401-36/0710 del Consejo de Arqueología, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), México, D.F., y con la concurrencia de los Municipios de Janos, Casas Grandes, Ascención y Galeana. El proyecto fue respaldado por la concesión SBR-9809839 del National Science Foundation (NSF). Nuestros informes anteriores (Hard y Roney 1998, 1999; Roney y Hard 2000) describen las obras y resultados de las campañas de 1997, 1998 y 1999, respectivamente. Los objetivos de la temporada 2000 fueron los siguientes: Seguir excavando en el Cerro Juanaqueña para recuperar muestras carbonizadas, de hueso, y macrobotánico; continuar los estudios geomorfológicos dentro del llano inundado; elaborar un extenso archivo de fotos aéreas de los sitios cerros con trincheras; llevar a cabo un reconocimiento arqueológico de la vecindad del Cerro Juanaqueña (véase Figura1). Finalmente, y ligado a estos estudios, fue el llevar a cabo unas pruebas de excavación en tres cerros de trincheras localizados al meridional de Chihuahua, en el área de Jiménez y Parral. Estos últimos estudios se realizaron durante el mes de octubre del 2000. El informe actual describe las obras y algunos resultados relacionados a los dichos objetivos.
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    Archival and Historical Review of the Children’s Hospital of San Antonio Property, Downtown, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2020-12-01) McKenzie, Clinton M. M.; Mauldin, Raymond P.; Munoz, Cynthia M.
    From the Fall of 2016 through September 2020, the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) conducted archaeological monitoring and test excavations for an expansion and renovation project on the Children’s Hospital of San Antonio’s (CHoSA) downtown campus under contract with CBRE Healthcare Services. Dr. Raymond Mauldin served as the Principal Investigator for the project, and Cynthia Munoz served as the Project Archaeologist. The archaeological investigation did not require a Texas Antiquities Permit. However, the City of San Antonio (COSA) Office of Historice Preservation (OHP) has review authority as the project area falls under the purview of the Historic and Design Review Commission (HDRC). The hospital site and landscaping work were approved by the HDRC on October, 16, 2019 (HDRC Case No. 2019-568). The project adhered to the COSA Unified Development Code (Article 6 35-630 to 35-634). Human remains were recorded during construction excavations at various times over the four years of improvements to the project area. The hospital property was originally the location of the San Fernando Campo Santo (1808-1848) and the Old Catholic Cemetery of San Antonio (1848-approximately 1855). The results of the archaeological monitoring and testing are discussed in a separate report (Munoz 2020). The purpose of this report is to provide the CHoSA and the descendants of the individuals interred on the project area with a comprehensive history of the CHoSA property. The history was compiled from primary sources and from a newpaper survey and literature review. To supplement the archival research, the report includes an analysis of burial patterns based on the San Fernando Burial Registry as translated by John Leal and personal contributions from descendants of some of the individuals buried on the property.
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    An Archival and Archaeological Review of Reported Human Remains at Alamo Plaza and Mission San Antonio de Valero, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2022-06-30) McKenzie, Clinton M. M.; Hindes, Kay; Ivey, James E.; Anderson, Nesta; Mauldin, Raymond P.; Munoz, Cynthia M.
    In June of 2021, the University of Texas at San Antonio Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) was retained by the City of San Antonio to produce a comprehensive archival and historical research report addressing issues related to burials and cemeteries at the Alamo and surrounding Alamo Plaza area. This effort was directed by the City Manager’s Office (CMO) in support of the Alamo Citizen’s Advisory Committee (ACAC). CAR, with the direction, coordination, and support of the CMO and the City Archaeologists with the Office of Historic Preservation, met with three members of the ACAC representing history and archaeology to respond to questions and provide regular updates. The first of these meetings was held on June 29, 2021, and they continued through the end of September 2021. In addition to coordination with the three ACAC members, CAR was also tasked with making three presentations to the entire ACAC. These occurred on September 14 and November 4 of 2021, and on April 11, 2022. The report provides a comprehensive archival and historical synthesis relative to specific research topics. The results include a discussion of the several communities that occupied the site, in particular the Franciscan Mission from 1724-1793; the Pueblo de Valero from 1793-1810 and the Compañia Volante de San Carlos de Parras from 1802-1835. The report examines Spanish Colonial and Mexican burial practices together with archaeological analogs from other local and regional sites as a predictive indicator for potentially new encounters with human remains and as an explanation for remains reported in the archival records. Included with the particular examination of the mission period, this report recapitulates the entirety of the listed burials from Mission San Antonio de Valero along with several analyses of those records. In addition to the recapitulation and analyses, all of these records have also been made available online for anyone interested in using them. Period archival records were exhaustively examined to attempt to collect every known written account of human remains reported in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries either from the Alamo buildings or within or adjacent to Alamo Plaza. This same comprehensive treatment was also applied to the archival documents and narratives related to the dead from the Battle of the Alamo. This work product was not conducted under a Texas Antiquities Permit, and no recommendations regarding National Register status or eligibility or landmark designation are provided. All supporting research conducted for this report, report drafts, internal and external correspondence, and figures are retained at the CAR curatorial repository on the UTSA Main Campus found under accession #2589.
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    An Inventory and Analysis of Spanish Colonial Construction-related Artifacts from Texas and Louisiana with French Colonial Comparative Material
    (Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2018) Roff, Shelley E.; Perez, Jason B.; Nowlin, Jessica
    The purpose of this collaborative project between Dr. Roff, an architectural historian at The University of Texas at San Antonio, and the Center for Archeological Research, was to identify, assess, and publish information on construction-related artifacts gathered from archaeological investigations of presidio, villa, and mission sites that were established in colonial Spanish Texas. Funded by a UTSA GREAT Grant 2016 -2017, one of the objectives of this project was to create new research tools for the field of Spanish Colonial studies. The documentation project resulted in the development of the Spanish Colonial Construction Tools, Hardware and Materials research database and an ArcGIS Online web-based application with maps and links to photos of artifacts. The research database catalogs the artifacts of 31 colonial sites housed at ten curatorial facilities in Texas and Louisiana; whereas, the ArcGIS site connects the artifacts to the places where they were found with photographs and contextual information. This inventory of archaeological artifacts was developed as the first step in a long-term project to document construction tools and materials housed in archaeological collections in the United States and Mexico. This report serves as a record of the documentation process and as a guide to the research tools.