Examining Preservice Teacher Technology Development During the COVID-19 Pandemic
As education faces abrupt changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the knowledge preservice teachers need to effectively integrate technology has become critical. This study examined how the instructional experience of preservice and clinical teachers influenced the development of T-dimensional self-efficacy. Further, the study identified T-dimensional development using demographic, program, and construct variables within a teacher education program currently restructuring its technology integration efforts. A longitudinal, quantitative research survey was administered as a pre-post-survey to preservice teachers during traditional face-to-face instruction in Fall 2019 and clinical teachers in emergency remote learning in Spring 2020. Clinical teachers had a statistically significant increase in TPK self-efficacy from pre to post-survey, during emergency remote learning. Pre-survey results indicate preservice teachers reported lower self-efficacy in all T-dimensions compared to clinical teachers with a statistically significant difference between the two groups' TCK self-efficacy. However, preservice teachers outperformed clinical teachers in all T-dimensions after participating in the traditional face-to-face instruction, compared to clinical teacher's participation in emergency remote learning. Further, in order to develop a more in-depth picture of TPACK within the teacher education program, Kruskal-Wallis H Tests were used to examine the differences in TPACK across gender, age, race, program, and intended certification level. The tests identified a statistically significant difference in TPACK by age groups. While not statistically significant, preservice and clinical teachers across all subpopulations reported the least self-efficacy in TK. A lack of systematic integration of technology through a stand-alone technology course or across methods courses is likely the cause. Finally, multiple regression revealed that all constructs significantly predicted TPACK, however, TPK, PK, and PCK explained the majority of variance in the clinical teacher's TPACK development. Thus, a continued focus on pedagogical knowledge with and without technology may support preservice teachers' TPACK development. Future research and program implications are discussed.