The Impact of Teachers' Knowledge of Explicit/Implicit English Language Instruction on Their Practice: A Comparison Study Between BBL/ESL Teachers and Non-BBL/ESL Teachers
This study examines elementary school teachers' knowledge/cognition on explicit and implicit ELA (English Language Art) instruction and how their knowledge correlates with their teaching practices. Specifically, this study compares teachers' knowledge and practice between the Bilingual/English as a Second Language (BBL/ESL) classrooms and non-BBL/ESL classrooms in Texas public elementary schools to investigate the impacts of students' linguistic and sociocultural backgrounds on teachers' cognition and practice. The current study is a mixed method research. The main data collection methods are questionnaire, lesson observations, and semi-structured interviews. Thirty-nine public elementary school teachers (23 Non-BBL/ESL teachers, 16 BBL/ESL teachers) in San Antonio, Texas participated in this research. BBL/ESL group outperformed with seven items for the questionnaire. However, independent sample t-tests revealed no significant differences between two groups regarding the total score of 10 questionnaire items. The only area that the groups showed significant difference in was the average score of implicit instruction items (Item 3, 7, 8, 10). The lesson observation and the interview showed that BBL/ESL participants utilized explicit instruction more than Non-BBL/ESL participant due to students' need and linguistic/sociocultural background. Both teachers have similar cognition about implicit instruction: they both perceived implicit instruction as constructive learning or student-center learning. Both groups of participants perceived explicit instruction as traditional teaching practice where a teacher teaches in front of a group and students listen passively. Nonetheless, they showed slightly different views on explicit instruction: the BBL/ESL participant focused on language rules, grammar, and phonics as well as reading skills, whereas the Non-BBL/ESL teacher was only concerned with reading skills.