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dc.contributor.authorMunoz, Cynthia Moore
dc.date.accessioned2021-09-20T18:18:19Z
dc.date.available2021-09-20T18:18:19Z
dc.date.issued2021-09
dc.identifier.citationMunoz, Cynthia Moore (2021). Excavation of Historic Human Remains from 41BX2397 at the Children's Hospital of San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. Archaeological Report No. 488. Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonioen_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12588/680
dc.description.abstractFrom November 4, 2016 through September 30, 2020, the University of Texas at San Antonio Center for Archaeological Research (CAR) conducted archaeological monitoring and excavations on the grounds of the Children’s Hospital of San Antonio in downtown San Antonio, Texas. The original hospital building was constructed in 1874 over the Old Campo Santo of San Fernando Cathedral (0.51 acres) and the Old Catholic Cemetery of San Antonio (3.72 acres). These cemeteries were in use between 1808 and 1855. The CAR was contracted by CHRISTUS Health to exhume human remains inadvertently exposed in September 2016 during the mechanical excavation of a utility trench in a proposed prayer garden, and to exhume all remaining burials in the Prayer Garden (0.35 acres) and in a proposed play garden (0.27 acres). The hospital filed a petition in district court for removal of remains from an abandoned cemetery and for removal of dedication for cemetery purposes. The court ruled that the hospital make a good faith effort to locate and remove all remains on the property. Test Unit excavations and backdirt screening from the utility trench resulted in the recovery of a minimum of 11 individuals. Subsequent mechanical trenching in the eastern half of the Prayer Garden (0.18 acres) to locate additional burials revealed a minimum of 83 additional individuals. Based on the large number of burials and the wishes of various descendent groups, CHRISTUS Health decided to retain the cemetery dedication for the property. On September 6, 2017, the 11 individuals from the utility trench were reburied in their original locations. The additional burials from the exploratory trenches were left in place and covered with a layer of sand and backdirt. The Prayer Garden was redesigned and renamed the Memorial Garden in order to avoid impacting burials. Throughout the duration of the project, CAR archaeologists monitored mechanical and hand-excavated trenches for electrical, drainage and irrigation, utility placement and renovation, basement waterproofing, wall replacement, bench and marker foundations, and tree plantings. In October 2017, seven shovel tests (all negative) were hand-excavated by CAR on the locations of seven proposed piers. While monitoring waterproofing excavations around the basement of the hospital in December 2017,a CAR archaeologist noted that a new trench had been excavated in the Memorial Garden. The trench was not monitored by archaeologists. Cleanup of the trench walls and floor recovered the remains of a minimum of two individuals. In June 2020, human remains were encountered during monitoring of a hand-excavated utility trench. The burial was not removed, but was covered with linen, geocloth, sand, and backdirt. Three isolated human bone fragments were recovered from the relocated utility trench. In August 2020, one isolated human skull fragment was collected during monitoring of a hand-excavated irrigation trench. On September 30, 2020, the remains exhumed from the December 2017, June 2020, and August 2020 trenches were reinterred in the Memorial Garden. Because the project area was on private property, the archaeological investigation did not require a Texas Antiquities Permit. However, the City of San Antonio (COSA) Office of Historic Preservation (OHP) has review authority as the project area falls under the purview of the Historic and Design Review Commission (HDRC). The hospital site and landscaping work was approved by theHDRC on October 16, 2019 (HDRC Case No. 2019-568). The project adhered to the COSA Unified Development Code (Article 635-630 to 35-634). The Children’s Hospital retained control over the human remains. As an institution acting as a “museum”, per the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the hospital does not receive federal funds through any grant, loan, or contract (other than a procurement contract). Because the Hospital has control, but does not receive Federal funding, grant, loan, or contract (other than a procurement contract). Because the Hospital has control, but does not receive Federal funds, NAGPRA compliance was not required. Dr. Paul Shawn Marceaux served as the Principal Investigator until November 2019 at which point Dr. Raymond Mauldin assumed the role. Cynthia Moore Munoz served as the Project Archaeologist. The CAR’s excavations on the project area revealed that areas still contain the human remains buried in the Old Campo Santo of San Fernando and the Old Catholic Cemetery. The cemeteries were recorded as archaeological site 41BX2397. CAR recommends that any future excavations on the property be subject to archaeological testing and monitoring with the expectation of burial exposure. All human remains and burial-associated artifacts were reinterred on the CHoSA property. Associated documents, notes, and photographs, were prepared for curation according to THC guidelines and are permanently curated at CAR as Accession 2343,en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipChildren's Hospital of San Antonioen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherCenter for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonioen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesArchaeological Report;No. 488
dc.subjecthistoric cemeteryen_US
dc.subjecthistoric archaeologyen_US
dc.subjectTexas Archaeologyen_US
dc.titleExcavation of Historic Human Remains from 41BX2397 at the Children's Hospital of San Antonio, Bexar County, Texasen_US
dc.typeTechnical Reporten_US


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